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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
Annual Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
OR
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
For the transition period from             to            
Commission file number 033-90866
WESTINGHOUSE AIR BRAKE TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
  
Delaware25-1615902
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer
Identification No.)
30 Isabella Street
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212
(412) 825-1000
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)(Registrant’s telephone number)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
ClassTrading SymbolName of Exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per shareWABNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  ¨.
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ¨    No  ý.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes  ý    No  ☐.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files)    Yes  ý    No   ¨.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:
Large accelerated filerxAccelerated filer¨Non-accelerated filer¨
Emerging growth company
Smaller reporting company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management's assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.   
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  ý.
The registrant estimates that as of June 30, 2021, the aggregate market value of the voting shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $15.4 billion based on the closing price on the New York Stock Exchange for such stock.
As of February 11, 2022, 185,290,114 shares of Common Stock of the registrant were issued and outstanding.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Portions of the Proxy Statement for the registrant’s Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 18, 2022 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
  
 PART IPage
   
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
   
 PART II 
   
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 9C.
   
 PART III 
   
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
   
 PART IV 
   
Item 15.
Item 16.


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PART I
Item  1.BUSINESS
General
Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corporation, doing business as Wabtec Corporation, is a Delaware corporation with headquarters at 30 Isabella Street in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Our telephone number is 412-825-1000, and our website is located at www.wabteccorp.com. Except as the context otherwise requires, all references to “we”, “our”, “us”, the “Company” and “Wabtec” refer to Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries. George Westinghouse founded the original Westinghouse Air Brake Co. in 1869 when he invented the air brake. Westinghouse Air Brake Company (“WABCO”) was formed in 1990 when it acquired certain assets and operations from American Standard, Inc., now known as Trane (“Trane”). The Company went public on the New York Stock Exchange in 1995.
Throughout the years, the Company has made a number of strategic acquisitions leading the Company to where it is today. These have primarily included:
the 1999 merger with MotivePower Industries, Inc. whereby the Company adopted its current name of Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corporation, or Wabtec;
the 2017 acquisition of Faiveley Transport, S.A. (“Faiveley Transport”), a leading provider of value-added, integrated systems and services, primarily for the global transit rail market. Based in France, the Faiveley Transport business has roots to 1919 and made Wabtec a leader in manufacturing pantographs, automatic door mechanisms, air conditioning systems, railway braking systems and couplers; and
the 2019 acquisition of GE Transportation, a business unit of General Electric Company. This brought a global technology leader and supplier of locomotives, equipment, services and digital solutions to the rail, mining, marine, stationary power and drilling industries into Wabtec.
As a result of those strategic acquisitions, as well as other smaller acquisitions and organic growth, Wabtec is now one of the world’s largest providers of locomotives, value-added, technology-based equipment, systems and services for the global freight rail and passenger transit industries with approximately 25,000 employees, excluding contingent workers, and operations in over 50 countries. We believe we hold a leading market share for many of our core product lines globally. Our highly engineered products, which are intended to enhance safety, improve productivity, and reduce maintenance costs for customers, can be found on most locomotives, freight cars, passenger transit cars and buses around the world.
Through both internal growth as well as acquisitions, Wabtec has positioned itself with the following strategic benefits:
Increased diversity of revenues by product, geography and market. Comprehensive product offerings spanning the freight rail and passenger transit industries, as well as products in the bus, mining and marine, and discrete industrial markets help Wabtec to balance the cyclical nature of the global rail business.
Significant operating synergies and improved financial profile. The consummation of the GE Transportation acquisition is leading to operating synergies across all of Wabtec. As a result, we achieved over $250 million in annual run-rate operating synergies, driven by cost and revenue opportunities. This will enhance Wabtec’s margins and revenue growth opportunities with strong free cash flow generation to enable strategic deleveraging through debt reduction and earnings growth.
Increased technical and engineering expertise. Particularly with the onboarding of Faiveley Transport and GE Transportation, Wabtec's technical capabilities and product development efforts are strengthened.
Increased scale and diversification of Wabtec’s Freight product portfolio. Wabtec is one of the world’s largest providers of locomotives, freight car components, technology-enabled equipment, systems and services for the locomotive and freight rail industries.
Broadened product line and international presence in the transit market. Wabtec offers a comprehensive, broad and diversified portfolio of products to the transit rail industries throughout the world.
Complementary Digital and Electronics technologies. Wabtec has a comprehensive digital portfolio and leading engineering and technical intellectual property, which provides electronics and digital technologies to meet growing demand for train intelligence and network optimization.
Enhanced Aftermarket and Services opportunities. Wabtec has an installed base of more than 23,000 locomotives and content on virtually all North American locomotives and freight cars, as well as a diverse offering of Transit locomotives and cars both internationally and domestically, which enables significant opportunities in the higher-margin aftermarket parts and services business and mitigates the exposure to cycles.
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Industry Overview
The Company primarily serves the global freight rail and passenger transit industries. As such, our operating results are largely dependent on the level of activity, financial condition and capital spending plans of freight railroads and passenger transit agencies around the world, and transportation equipment manufacturers who serve those markets. Many factors influence these industries, including general economic conditions; traffic volumes, as measured by freight carloadings and passenger ridership; government spending on public transportation; and investment in new technologies. In general, trends such as increasing urbanization and growth in developing markets, a focus on sustainability and environmental awareness, increasing investment in technology solutions, an aging equipment fleet, and growth in global trade are expected to drive continued investment in freight rail and passenger transit.
The Association of the European Rail Industry, UNIFE, advocates for and represents European train builders and rail suppliers. UNIFE publishes a biennial market study that provides an overview of the market in its current form and a forecast of its future development in different regions and market segments. According to the 2020 biennial edition of the study, the accessible global market for railway products and services is more than $120 billion and is expected to grow in the medium- and long-term at an average annual growth rate of 2.3% through 2025, despite an 8% COVID-induced decline in 2020. The 2020 study also concluded that the rail sector had grown 3.6% annually since 2017, supporting the appeal of rail transport for all sectors from urban metro to commercial freight. The three largest geographic markets, which represented about 85% of the total accessible market, were Europe, North America and Asia Pacific, all of which are projected to continue to grow.
In Europe, only 19% of freight traffic is rail while the majority of the rail system serves the passenger transit market, which is expected to continue growing as energy and environmental policies encourage continued investment in public mass transit, and modal shift from car to rail, although this growth may be stunted in the near-term as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In North America, railroads carry about 40% of intercity freight, as measured by ton-miles, which is more than any other mode of transportation. North America’s rail network is regarded as the world’s most-efficient and lowest-cost freight rail service. There are more than 600 railroads operating in North America, with the largest railroads, referred to as “Class I”, accounting for more than 90% of the industry’s revenues. Growth in the Asia Pacific market has been driven mainly by the continued urbanization of China and India, and by continued investments in freight rail rolling stock and infrastructure in Australia to serve its mining and natural resources markets. India is making significant investments in rolling stock and infrastructure to modernize its rail system
According to UNIFE, most emerging markets, including Russia-CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) and Africa-Middle East, are expected to grow at above-average rates as global trade leads to increased freight volumes and urbanization leads to increased demand for efficient mass-transportation systems. With about 1.3 million freight cars and about 21,000 locomotives, Russia-CIS is among the largest freight rail markets in the world. The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the expected growth in these emerging markets.
As growth occurs, Wabtec expects to have additional opportunities to provide products and services in these markets. New technologies offered by Wabtec can provide solutions to improve safety, cost and reliability of rail, as well as support the modernization of the global rail fleets. In its study, UNIFE also said it expected increased investment in digitalization, automation, and predictive maintenance through artificial intelligence, all of which would improve efficiency in the global rail industry.
Business Segments and Products
We provide our products and services through two principal business segments, the Freight Segment and the Transit Segment, both of which have different market characteristics and business drivers. The Freight Segment primarily manufactures and provides aftermarket parts and services for new locomotives; provides components for new and existing locomotives and freight cars; builds new commuter locomotives; supplies rail control and infrastructure products including electronics, positive train control equipment, signal design and engineering services; provides a comprehensive suite of software-enabled solutions designed to improve customer efficiency and productivity in the transportation and mining industries; overhauls locomotives; and provides heat exchangers and cooling systems for rail and other industrial markets. Customers include large, publicly traded railroads, leasing companies, manufacturers of original equipment such as locomotives and freight cars, and utilities. We are the largest global manufacturer of diesel-electric locomotives for freight railroads producing mission-critical products and solutions that help railroads reduce operating costs, decrease fuel use, minimize downtime and comply with emissions standards. As a result of the large base of approximately 23,000 locomotives currently in use, Wabtec's services product lines of rebuilding, remanufacturing, maintaining, and exchanging locomotives and components in the aftermarkets provides a significant, recurring revenue stream. In 2021, the Freight Segment accounted for approximately 67% of Wabtec’s total net sales, with approximately 57% of its net sales in the U.S. In 2021, approximately 68% of the Freight Segment’s net sales were in the aftermarket.
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The Transit Segment primarily manufactures and services components for new and existing passenger transit vehicles, typically regional trains, high speed trains, subway cars, light-rail vehicles and buses; supplies rail control and infrastructure products including electronics, signal design and engineering services; and refurbishes passenger transit vehicles. Customers include public transit authorities and municipalities, leasing companies, and manufacturers of passenger transit vehicles and buses around the world. In 2021, the Transit Segment accounted for approximately 33% of our total net sales, with approximately 14% of its net sales in the U.S. Approximately half of the Transit Segment’s net sales are in the aftermarket with the remainder in the original equipment market. Geographically, Faiveley Transport significantly strengthened Wabtec’s presence in the European and Asia Pacific transit markets.
Following is a summary of our leading products in both aftermarket and original equipment across both of our business segments in 2021:
Equipment:
Diesel-electric and battery powered locomotives for freight and transit
Engines, electric motors and premium propulsion systems used in locomotives, mining, marine, stationary power and drilling applications
Marine and mining products
Digital & Electronic Products:
Positive Train Control ("PTC") equipment and electronically controlled pneumatic braking products
Railway electronics, including event recorders, monitoring equipment and end of train devices
Signal design and engineering services
Train performance such as distributed locomotive power, train 'cruise control', and train remote control
Transport intelligence such as Industrial/mobile Internet of Things (IoT) hardware & software, edge-to-cloud, on and off-board analytics & rules, and asset performance management
Transport logistics such as rail transportation management, shipper transportation management, and port visibility and optimization
Network optimization such as rail network scheduling, dispatch and optimization, intermodal, terminal management and optimization, and rail yard management and optimization
Components:
Freight car trucks and braking equipment and related components for Freight applications
Draft gears, couplers and slack adjusters
Air compressors and dryers
Heat exchangers and cooling products for locomotives and power generation equipment
Track and switch products
New commuter and switcher locomotives
Services:
Freight locomotive overhaul, modernizations and refurbishment
Master service agreements for locomotive and car maintenance
Transit locomotive and car overhaul
Unit exchange of locomotive components
Transit Products:
Railway braking equipment and related components for Transit applications, including high-speed passenger transit vehicles
Friction products, including brake shoes, discs and pads
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment
Doors for buses and subway cars
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Platform screen doors
Pantographs
Window assemblies
Couplers
Accessibility lifts and ramps for buses and subway cars
Traction motors
We have become a leader in the freight rail and passenger transit industries by capitalizing on the strength of our existing products, technological capabilities and new product innovations, and by our ability to harden products to protect them from severe conditions, including extreme temperatures and high-vibration environments. Supported by our technical staff of more than 5,700 engineers and specialists, we have extensive experience in a broad range of product lines, which enables us to provide comprehensive, systems-based solutions for our customers.
We have continued to develop Energy Management Solutions for railroads to further reduce fuel consumption and emissions. These developments include the design of a battery electric locomotive that will be integrated with other diesel electric locomotives in a train. This hybrid consist, under the control of our Trip Optimizer software, will significantly reduce fuel consumption and have the ability to operate in a low emission state while in populated areas. In 2021, Wabtec and a Class I completed a three month pilot of a battery electric locomotive which reduced fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 11% in a revenue service train. In recent years, we have also introduced a number of significant new products, including PTC equipment that encompasses onboard digital data and global positioning communication protocols. We are making additional investments in this technology which we believe will provide customers with opportunities to improve safety and efficiency, in part through data analytics solutions. Other new products include HVAC inverter integrated solutions, brake discs and brake controls, platform doors and gates and door controllers.
For additional information on our business segments, see Note 19 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report.
Competitive Strengths
Our key strengths include:
Iconic legacy and strong reputation with a history of over 150 years of innovation. The rail industry has been in operation for over 150 years and we have been at the forefront of shaping and transforming the rail landscape through various innovations and technologies. Dating back to 1869 and George Westinghouse’s invention of the air brake, we are an established leader in the rail industry for freight and passenger transit vehicles. For over 110 years, GE Transportation has served the worldwide rail industry, which is a critical component of the global transportation system and the global economy, with an installed base of more than 23,000 locomotives worldwide. Faiveley Transport, founded in 1919, has a long history and is a market leader for its core products, including pantographs, automatic door mechanisms and air conditioning systems. We have leveraged our leading positions by focusing on research and engineering to expand beyond pneumatic braking components to supplying integrated parts and assemblies from a full locomotive through the end of the train. We are a recognized leader in the development and production of electronic recording, measuring and communications systems, PTC equipment, highly engineered compressors and heat exchangers for locomotives, and a leading manufacturer of freight car components, including electronic braking equipment, draft gears, trucks, brake shoes and electronic end-of-train devices. We are also a leading provider of braking equipment; heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment; door assemblies and platform screen doors; lifts and ramps; couplers and current collection equipment, such as pantographs, for passenger transit vehicles.
Breadth of product offering with a stable mix of original equipment market (OEM) and aftermarket business. Our product portfolio is one of the broadest in the rail industry, as we offer a wide selection of quality parts, components and assemblies across the entire train and worldwide. We provide our products in both the original equipment market and the aftermarket. Our substantial installed base of products with end-users such as the railroads and the passenger transit authorities is a significant competitive advantage for providing products and services to the aftermarket because these customers often look to purchase safety- and performance-related replacement parts from the original equipment components supplier. In addition, as OEMs and railroad operators attempt to modernize fleets with new products designed to improve and maintain safety and efficiency, these products must be designed to be interoperable with existing equipment. Sales of aftermarket parts and services have historically represented approximately 60% of our total net sales.
Leading design and engineering capabilities. We believe a hallmark of our relationship with our customers has been our leading design and engineering practice, which has assisted in the improvement and modernization of global
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railway equipment. We believe both our customers and government authorities value our technological capabilities and commitment to innovation, as we seek not only to enhance the efficiency and profitability of our customers, but also to improve the overall safety of the railways through continuous improvement of product performance. The Company designs, develops and manufactures critical components and systems for the rail, mining and marine industries, which include proprietary propulsion systems, engine platforms and controls technology. These innovative and differentiated solutions serve as the building blocks for the rail, mining and marine industries, and help keep our global customers at the forefront of advancing technologies. When coupled with our advanced digital analytic capabilities, our solutions help drive increased energy management, performance and reliability to our products. To that end, we have assembled a wide range of patented products, which we believe provides us with a competitive advantage.
Market leader in decarbonizing the rail industry. Today, rail represents the cleanest, most energy efficient, and safest mode of moving freight and people on land. As global demands for growth increase, current trends indicate that freight and passenger rail activity will more than double by 2050, leading to an increased demand for sustainable transportation of people and goods. These converging forces highlight the critical interplay between market dynamics, the need for decarbonization and Wabtec’s business strategy. We are advancing our sustainability priorities both through our own commitments to our people, communities, and planet, as well as by innovating next generation technologies that reduce emissions, energy consumption and waste, and increase fuel efficiency for our customers through advancements in our equipment and digital solutions. We are helping our customers reduce their overall carbon footprint through the development of low-emitting locomotives like our Tier 4 and battery-electric locomotives, Trip Optimizer, Green Air and Green Friction products, and the use of alternative fuels such as biodiesel, renewable diesel, and hydrogen.
Driving the digital transformation of the rail industry. Our early investment in data analytics and software has allowed us to become a strategic partner for customers looking to derive new value from assets and digitally transform their operations. Through these initiatives, our digital solutions have helped to transform many distribution channels in the transportation industry including mine to ports, from shipper to receiver, from port to intermodal terminals to main line locomotives and railcars and across train yards and operation centers. The breadth of our Digital and Electronic solutions gives customers confidence in our ability to address their current and future needs.
Strategic partnerships with longstanding customers and other key stakeholders. For more than a century, rail has been a cornerstone of the global transportation system, and thus, the economy. Rail remains one of the most cost-effective, energy-efficient modes of transport, both domestically and internationally. As the largest global producer of diesel-electric locomotives, we have a significant market share both in North America and globally. We listen to our key stakeholders and focus on areas where Wabtec can enable the most meaningful impact for our customers, communities, and the world. Transformational change requires collaboration, so we are committed to accelerating progress by partnering with customers, government leaders, corporations, universities and other key stakeholders. For example, we have partnered with a customer, a leading short line and regional freight railroad, as well as a leading artificial intelligence and robotics institution to create technologies that will decarbonize freight rail transport, improve freight safety, and generate greater rail network utilization. We also have collaborated with a global transportation company focused on the development and commercialization of battery technology and hydrogen fuel cell systems for Wabtec locomotives. By working together with these partners and others, we are developing advanced solutions for the industry to realize the zero-emission rail network of the future.
Experience with industry regulatory requirements. The freight rail and passenger transit industries are governed by various government agencies and regulators in each country and region. These groups mandate rigorous manufacturer certification and a new product testing and approval processes that we believe are difficult for new entrants to meet cost-effectively and efficiently without the scale and extensive experience we possess. Certification processes are lengthy, and often require local presence and expertise. In addition, each transit agency places a high degree of importance on vehicle customization, which requires experience and technical expertise to meet ever-evolving specifications.
Streamlined cost structure and operational excellence provide operating leverage and support Wabtec’s growth. Wabtec’s lean manufacturing and continuous improvement initiatives have been a part of the Company’s culture for more than 25 years and have enabled Wabtec to manage successfully through cycles in the rail supply market. We are continuing to expand our Operating Excellence focus in driving productivity and delighting customers. Our Operating Excellence Program leverages the breadth and depth of our One Wabtec expertise across the organization in sharing of best practices, instilling a culture of learning, problem solving, continuous improvement, and driving standard operating practices. This, coupled with our overall manufacturing and supply base footprint optimization initiatives, will drive increased flexibility and improved responsiveness to our customer needs while driving margin improvement through productivity.
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Business Strategy
We strive to generate sufficient cash to invest in our growth strategies and to build on what we consider to be a leading position as a low-cost producer in the industry while maintaining world-class product quality, technology and customer responsiveness. We continuously strive to improve quality, delivery and productivity, and to reduce costs utilizing global sourcing and supply chain management. These practices enable us to streamline processes, improve product reliability and customer satisfaction, reduce product cycle times and respond more rapidly to market developments. We also rely on functional experts within the Company across various disciplines to train, coach and share best practices throughout the Company, while benchmarking against best-in-class competitors and peers. Over time, we expect to continue to increase operating margins, improve cash flow and strengthen our ability to invest in the following growth strategies:

Accelerate innovation of scalable technologies. We continue to emphasize innovation and development funding to create new products and capabilities to increase customer productivity, efficiency, capacity, utilization and safety, such as the battery electric locomotive, vehicle monitoring and data analytics. We will continue to lead the way with technologies that use less energy, reduce weight and size, and increase recyclability. We plan to invest in bringing new technologies to market for our customers. A significant portion of our investment will be focused on three customer-centric areas of innovation: zero-emissions operations, automation and digitization and advanced supply chain visibility. These investments will position our customers for success and make these technologies the standard going forward. We have a multi-year initiative to build on our existing expertise and technologies in the digital and electronics areas. In addition, we invest in developing enhancements and new features to existing products, such as brake discs and heat exchangers. We are focusing on technological advances, especially in the areas of electronics, battery power and alternative fuels, braking products and other on-board equipment, as a means to deliver new product growth. We seek to provide customers with incremental technological advances that offer immediate benefits with cost-effective investments.

Grow and refresh expansive installed base. We are a leading transportation and component manufacturer with a significant installed base with expansive product and service capabilities. We have over 23,000 locomotives in service, the majority of which are equipped with Digital technologies, like Positive Train Control. We have components on rail cars in over 100 countries and over 45,000 railway vehicles equipped with Wabtec braking systems. We intend to increase sales through direct sales of existing products to current and new customers, by developing specific new products for application in new geographic markets, by making strategic acquisitions and through joint ventures with railway suppliers which have a strong presence in their local markets. We believe that international markets represent a significant opportunity for future growth. In Transit, we are focused on mature markets such as Europe and emerging markets such as India. In Freight, we are targeting markets that operate significant fleets of U.S.-style locomotives and freight cars, including Australia, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Russia, South Africa and other select areas within Europe and South America. In addition, we have opportunities to increase the sale of certain products that we currently manufacture for the rail industry into other industrial markets, such as mining, off-highway and energy.

Lead the decarbonization of rail. We have taken significant steps to decarbonize global transport and make our world safer, smarter and greener. Today, rail represents the cleanest, most energy efficient and safest mode of moving freight and people on land. As global demands for growth increase, current trends indicate that freight and passenger rail activity will more than double by 2050, leading to an increased demand for sustainable transportation of people and goods. These converging forces highlight the critical interplay between market dynamics, the need for decarbonization and Wabtec’s business strategy. Wabtec is leading the transition to a more utilized, efficient, and low-carbon rail network. Alternative clean energy technologies are critical in the fight against climate change and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We are helping our customers reduce their overall carbon footprint through the development of low-emitting locomotives like our Tier 4 and battery-electric locomotives, Trip Optimizer, Green Air and Green Friction products, and the use of alternative fuels such as biodiesel, renewable diesel, and hydrogen.

Expand high-margin recurring revenue streams. Our expansive installed base allows us to generate strong recurring revenues with replacement parts and components, digital solutions, overhauls and modernizations. Aftermarket sales are typically done at higher margins and are less cyclical than OEM sales because a certain level of aftermarket maintenance and service work must be performed, even during an industry slowdown. Sales of aftermarket parts and services have historically represented approximately 60% of total net sales. As a long time supplier of original equipment, we have an extensive installed base of equipment in the field and growing this installed base further will expand our recurring aftermarket sales. Wabtec provides aftermarket parts and services for its components, and we seek to expand this business with customers who currently perform the work in-house. In this way, we expect to benefit as transit authorities and railroads outsource certain maintenance and overhaul functions.

Drive continuous operational improvement. We are focused on continuous improvement to drive cost competitiveness, effectively deploy capital and accelerate Lean. Lean is a set of principles that emphasize customer focus, elimination of waste, high quality growth and ruthless prioritization of work to improve safety, quality, delivery
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and cost. Lean is being embedded in our culture and is fundamental to how we execute our strategy. We are using Lean principles to help examine processes and continuously improve them by solving problems at their root cause. Our Lean transformation model focuses on driving process improvements and management systems to maximize the flow of value produced for the customer, remove waste, empower employees and optimize the enterprise. These principles are also rigorously applied to sustainability and safety.
Recent Acquisitions and Joint Ventures
See Note 3 of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part IV, Item 5 of this report for additional information about our recent acquisitions and joint ventures.
Backlog
The Company’s backlog was approximately $22 billion at December 31, 2021. For 2021, approximately 60% of total net sales came from aftermarket orders, which typically carry lead times of less than 30 days and are not included in backlog for a significant period of time.
The Company’s contracts are subject to standard industry cancellation provisions, including cancellations on short notice or upon completion of designated stages. Generally, if a customer were to cancel a contract we would have an enforceable right to payment for work completed up to the date of cancellation which would include a reasonable profit margin. Substantial scope-of-work adjustments are common. For these and other reasons, completion of the Company’s backlog may be delayed or canceled. The railroad industry, in general, has historically been subject to fluctuations due to overall economic conditions and the level of use of alternative modes of transportation.
The rollforward of the Company's backlog of firm customer orders and the expected year of completion are as follows:
 In millions Freight SegmentTransit SegmentConsolidated
 Balance at December 31, 2020$17,887 $3,704 $21,591 
 New orders 5,964 2,763 8,727 
 Less: Net sales (5,239)(2,583)(7,822)
 Adjustments / foreign exchange (110)(217)(327)
 Balance at December 31, 2021$18,502 $3,667 $22,169 
 Expected Delivery
2022$4,520 $1,748 $6,268 
 Other years $13,982 $1,919 $15,901 
The Company saw no significant cancellations of backlog during the year ended December 31, 2021 despite the unprecedented pandemic caused by COVID-19 and its effects on locomotive parkings, carbuilds, and transit ridership levels. However, the economic slowdown and disruptions that were caused by COVID-19 did impact the timing of some orders in backlog as in certain cases the delivery of goods and services previously expected to be completed in the current year has been pushed out to future years.
Engineering and Development
To execute our strategy to develop new products, we invest in a variety of engineering and development activities. For the fiscal years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, we invested $176 million, $162 million and $210 million, respectively, on product development and improvement activities. Significant incremental engineering expense is incurred with the execution of original equipment customer contracts. Across the corporation we have established multiple Centers of Competence, which have specialized, technical expertise in various disciplines and product areas.
Our engineering and development program includes investments in data analytics, train control and other new technologies, with an emphasis on developing products that enhance safety, productivity and efficiency for our customers. For example, we have developed advanced cooling systems that enable lower emissions from diesel engines used in rail and other industrial markets.  Sometimes we conduct specific research projects in conjunction with universities, customers and other industry suppliers.
We use our Product Development System to develop and monitor new product programs. The system requires the product development team to follow consistent steps throughout the development process, from concept to launch, to ensure the product will meet customer expectations and internal profitability targets.
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Intellectual Property
We have approximately 6,000 active patents worldwide and on average file for approximately 300 new patents each year. We also rely on a combination of trade secrets and other intellectual property laws, nondisclosure agreements and other protective measures to establish and protect our proprietary rights in our intellectual property. We also follow the product development practices of our competitors to monitor any possible patent infringement by them, and to evaluate their strategies and plans.
Certain trademarks, among them the name WABCO®, were acquired or licensed from American Standard Inc., now known as Trane, in 1990 at the time of our acquisition of the North American operations of the Railway Products Group of Trane. Other trademarks have been developed through the normal course of business or acquired as a part of our ongoing merger and acquisition program.
We have entered into a variety of license agreements as licensor and licensee. We do not believe that any single license agreement is of material importance to our business or either of our business segments as a whole.
Customers
We provide products and services for more than 500 customers worldwide. Our customers include passenger transit authorities and railroads throughout North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Africa and South America; manufacturers of transportation equipment, such as locomotives, freight cars, passenger transit vehicles and buses; and companies that own, lease, and maintain such equipment.
Top customers can change from year to year. For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, our top five customers accounted for approximately 28% of net sales. No one customer represents 10% or more of consolidated net sales. We believe that we have strong relationships with all of our key customers.
Competition
We hold a leading market share for many of our core product lines globally, although market shares vary by product lines and geographies. We operate in a highly competitive marketplace. Price competition is strong because we have a relatively small number of customers and they are very cost-conscious. In addition to price, competition is based on product performance and technological leadership, quality, reliability of delivery, and customer service and support.
Our principal competitors vary across product lines and geographies. Within North America, New York Air Brake Company, a subsidiary of the German air brake producer Knorr-Bremse AG (“Knorr”) and Amsted Rail Company, Inc., a subsidiary of Amsted Industries Corporation, are our principal overall OEM competitors. Our competition for locomotive, freight and passenger transit service and repair is mostly from the railroads’ and passenger transit authorities’ in-house operations, Electro-Motive Diesel, a division of Caterpillar, and Knorr. We believe our key strengths, which include leading market positions in core products, including sustainable technologies, breadth of product offering with a stable mix of OEM and aftermarket business, leading design and engineering capabilities, significant barriers to entry, strategic partnerships and operational excellence, coupled with an experienced management team, enable us to compete effectively in this marketplace. Outside of North America, Knorr is our main competitor, although not in every product line or geography. In addition, our competitors often include smaller, local suppliers in most international markets. Depending on the product line and geography, we can also compete with our customers, such as CRRC Corporation Limited, a China-based manufacturer of rolling stock.
Sustainability
Wabtec is committed to sustainable value creation. Our sustainability strategy is to contribute to a better, more sustainable world through our unique business offerings, leading technologies and sustainable business practices. Our strategy helps us capitalize on market opportunities and reduce safety and environmental risks, while creating value for our customers, employees and other stakeholders. Wabtec utilizes three Strategic Sustainability Principles to execute our sustainability strategy:
Innovating with Purpose. We are committed to developing responsible and sustainable products that minimize the impact on the planet.
Driving Responsible Operations. We are committed to providing safe work environments and products that enable productive and efficient use of resources.
Empowering People and Communities. We are committed to driving an inclusive culture grounded in integrity, committed to the development of and investment in the communities where our teams live and work.
As we develop and refine our sustainability strategy, it is important that we listen to our key stakeholders and focus on areas where Wabtec can enable the most meaningful impact for our customers, communities and the world. In 2021, we conducted a comprehensive Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) assessment that included internal and external
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stakeholder involvement, to identify key ESG issues of focus for the Company. Based on the assessment, the following topics had the highest relative priority to Wabtec and its external stakeholders and are aligned to our overall sustainability strategy and action plans:
TopicDefinitionAlignment to Wabtec Strategic Sustainability Principles
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissionsReducing GHG emissions across Wabtec’s value chain and helping Wabtec partners across their value chain reduce GHG emissions. This includes reducing major sources of indirect emissions during the procurement and processing of raw materials, during manufacturing and the operation of our facilities, and during product distribution and end use. • Innovating with Purpose
• Driving Responsible Operations
Energy & renewablesSupporting policies and organizational partners that contribute to the renewable energy transition. Contributing to the success of the energy transition by improving the energy efficiency of Wabtec’s products and operations. Integrating renewables into Wabtec’s products and operations and enabling the adoption of new and emerging renewable energy solutions.• Innovating with Purpose
• Driving Responsible Operations
Innovation & technologyCapitalizing on opportunities related to new product advancements and innovations that include the adoption of emerging technology to help address key societal and transportation sector challenges. Developing a resilient business model capable of meeting societal expectations for continuous improvement.• Innovating with Purpose
• Empowering People
and Communities
Business Ethics & ComplianceUpholding ethics and integrity in every aspect of Wabtec’s business by ensuring transparency in all financial practices. Complying with all applicable national and local laws and regulations by promoting practices and policies that encourage reporting instances of non-compliance and by implementing corrective actions that prevent recurrence. Preventing bribery, corruption, and anti-competitive behavior. Promoting ethics and compliance throughout Wabtec’s value chain, especially among suppliers. • Driving Responsible Operations
• Empowering People
and Communities
Data privacy & cybersecurityInvesting in cybersecurity measures and adapting to business risks presented by technology and digitization. Protecting Wabtec’s proprietary information and intellectual property. Ensuring the responsible management and use of data, including data from customers, employees, and suppliers. Protecting data collected by Wabtec products. • Innovating with Purpose
During 2021, Wabtec adopted its Green Finance Framework. Following the release of the Green Financing Framework, the Company issued its inaugural "green bond" – a €500 million issuance in the European bond market. The Company intends to utilize green financing instruments as part of its overall capital resources strategy to support the transition to a low-carbon transportation future and meet the sustainable transportation needs of growing cities around the world. Projects supported by green financing will largely target the objective of climate change mitigation by focusing on the efficiency of freight rail systems and public transport, as well as on the provision of energy-efficient customer solution services. Focus areas include:
•     Clean transportation
•     Eco-efficient and/or circular economy adapted products, production technologies and processes
•     Renewable energy
•     Pollution prevention and control
•     Energy efficiency
Cybersecurity Framework
Cybersecurity and data protection are important considerations in the design and production of Wabtec products, projects, and services. Information technology is used and relied upon extensively by our business. We collect, process, and retain sensitive and confidential customer information, including proprietary business information, personal data and other information, some of which may be subject to privacy and security laws, regulations and/or customer-imposed data protection controls. To address risks related to cybersecurity and privacy, Wabtec seeks to leverage industry cybersecurity practices that have been developed by organizations such as National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and also engages external independent advisors. Wabtec’s Data Protection Plan describes the technical, physical and administrative controls used to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information provided to and managed by Wabtec. Cybersecurity is addressed and discussed regularly with our Chief Information Officer, the Audit Committee and Board of Directors. Wabtec also maintains SOC 1 Type 2 certification for select digital products, as well as cyber liability insurance coverage. We also regularly evaluate our response readiness, including disaster recovery plans and business continuity considerations in the case of a cyber incident. Finally, Wabtec engages in regular security awareness training to highlight and educate its employees on how to identify and mitigate cybersecurity risks at the individual level.
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ESG Goals
Wabtec is committed to transparency on ESG topics, including the opportunities and challenges we encounter as we work to enhance performance and conduct business in a responsible manner. In 2020, we established ESG goals around innovation, operations, safety, and people. We report our progress on these goals annually in our published Sustainability Report, which can be found on our website at www.wabteccorp.com/sustainability. The content referred to on any website referred to in this annual report, including the Sustainability Report, is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K.
Wabtec developed an ESG governance framework to provide oversight for our climate action strategy. This structure starts with Wabtec's Board of Directors and its committees who oversee the execution of the Company’s ESG strategy as part of their oversight of Wabtec’s overall business. In particular, the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee assists the Board in its oversight of Wabtec’s sustainability strategy and execution against key goals, as well as the review of climate-related risks and opportunities. To further facilitate the Board’s engagement and oversight, climate was added as a risk category in Wabtec’s enterprise risk management process.
Employees
Human Capital
At Wabtec, we believe performance drives progress, and are committed to developing sustainable transportation solutions that move and improve the world. We are committed to driving an inclusive culture and integrating our talent and capabilities across the enterprise. As a company, we believe that protecting the health and safety of our people and the environment is the responsibility of everyone at Wabtec, especially during a global pandemic.
Our headquarters are in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and we have offices and facilities in over 50 countries around the globe. As of December 31, 2021, we have a global workforce of approximately 25,000 employees, excluding contingent workers.
Diversity and Inclusion
Wabtec is committed to ensuring a diverse and inclusive workplace that respects and seeks the unique talents, experiences and viewpoints of all our employees. Wabtec has a Diversity and Inclusion Council, led by members of Wabtec’s executive leadership team, who oversee global diversity and inclusion policies and initiatives. We strive to create an inclusive workplace where employees can be themselves. Our Board of Directors also plays a critical role in creating an organization that prioritizes, supports, and invests in diversity, inclusion, and equity. Over the last two years, Wabtec has named three diverse
members to its Board. Currently, 40% of Wabtec’s Board is diverse (gender; race/ethnicity), and over 18% of Wabtec’s global senior management are female and roughly 18% are people of color based in the U.S. In 2020, women constituted approximately 16% of our global workforce and approximately 18% of our salaried employees and people of color constituted approximately 20% of our U.S. salaried workforce and approximately 24% of the total U.S. workforce.
Training and Development
We continually invest in our employees’ career growth and provide employees with a wide range of development opportunities, including face-to-face, virtual, social and self-directed learning, mentoring and coaching programs. We have invested in training courses through Wabtec’s Learning Management System (LMS). In 2021, Wabtec partnered with a third-party to provide diversity and inclusion training. Over 4,000 employees participated in the training, which was coupled with tools and resources for people leaders to help make diversity and inclusion part of a long-term conversation rather than a one-time training.
Our two-year Leadership, Expertise, Advancement and Development (LEAD) program is the primary path for university graduates into Wabtec. LEAD is a two-year program that offers an immersive learning experience in the fields of engineering, operations, finance and IT along with extensive leadership training designed to build the next generation of leaders. On average, there are 100 participants in the LEAD program that rotate between business units every six months to work on strategic projects and assignments, gain exposure to senior leadership and build their global professional network. We are focused on strengthening this program to support our global talent pipeline.
Health and Safety
When it comes to employee safety, our commitment is to provide safe work environments for our employees and to meet or exceed environmental, health, and safety (EHS) laws and regulations in the places where we operate. In 2020, the Company relaunched the Environment, Health, and Safety component of the Wabtec Management System (known as the “EHS WMS”) to strengthen our management system approach to addressing EHS risks and promote the consistent implementation of best practices across all our global manufacturing and services sites, regardless of how local laws are implemented or enforced. The EHS WMS establishes standard expectations in 13 core competency areas, including leadership and accountability, regulatory applicability review, EHS processes and systems, risk assessment, safety defenses, exposure defenses, environmental defenses
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and contractor management. Operational sites are measured against these EHS program expectations. In addition, the Company’s EHS WMS is directly aligned to accepted international standards, such as ISO 14001 for Environmental and ISO 45001 for Occupational Health and Safety. With zero fatalities and over 80 operational sites with zero recordable injuries, 2020 marked the 13th consecutive year of injury rate reductions across Wabtec's vast operations.
In 2021, Wabtec continued its commitment to safety and launched a four week EHS leadership training course aimed at building the toolkits of front-line supervisors and plant managers. The course was designed to establish a common understanding of Wabtec’s EHS tools and terminology, initiate a partnership between the plant manager and their EHS leader on a personal action plan, connect plant managers to the broader network of global leaders, and encourage decision making at the site level that is informed by an understanding of EHS impacts and of legal and compliance responsibilities. In 2021, over 120 leaders from 26 countries attended the training.
COVID-19
The pandemic has reinforced the importance of keeping Wabtec employees safe and healthy while keeping essential rail services and the global economy moving. When the pandemic began, Wabtec launched its COVID-19 Crisis Management Team, which met daily to focus on three key elements: protecting our people, serving our customers, and ensuring business continuity. Manufacturing and office locations were required to implement risk assessment methodologies and rethink work practices to allow for remote working or social distancing, develop new procedures for workplace entry, strengthen site-level crisis management teams and implement new tools for rapid communication with site employees. Site leaders and people managers were trained on techniques for communicating transparently and navigating complex business decisions during a crisis.
Compensation and Benefits
We remain committed to a strong pay-for performance philosophy that aligns individual performance, behaviors and business results with individual rewards. To deliver on that commitment, we utilize market data to benchmark to the external market, and consider factors such as an employee’s role and experience, the location of the job and performance when determining compensation.
We provide our employees resources to help them succeed. We offer a wide range of benefits including healthcare and wellness benefits, retirement benefits, an Employee Assistance Program, Employee Resource Groups to build diverse communities at Wabtec, and paid time off.
Regulation
In the course of our operations, we are subject to various regulations and standards of governments and other agencies in the U.S. and around the world. These entities typically govern equipment, safety and interoperability standards for freight rail rolling stock and passenger transit, oversee a wide variety of rules and regulations governing safety and design of equipment, and evaluate certification and qualification requirements for suppliers.  New products generally must undergo testing and approval processes that are rigorous and lengthy. As a result of these regulations and requirements, we must usually obtain and maintain certifications in a variety of jurisdictions and countries.  The governing bodies include the FRA and the Association of American Railroads ("AAR") in the U.S., and the International Union of Railways (“UIC”) and the European Railway Agencies in Europe. Also, in Europe, the European Committees for Standardization continually draft new European standards which cover, for example, the Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety of railways systems. To guarantee interoperability in Europe, the European Union for Railway Agencies is responsible for defining and implementing Technical Standards of Interoperability, which covers areas such as infrastructure, energy, rolling stock, telematic applications, traffic operation and management subsystems, noise pollution and waste generation, protection against fire and smoke, and system safety.
Most countries and regions in which Wabtec does business have similar rule-making bodies. For example, in Russia, a GOST-R certificate of conformity is mandatory for all products related to the safety of individuals in Russian territory. In China, any product or system sold on the Chinese market must have been certified in accordance with national standards. In the local Indian market, most products are covered by regulations patterned after AAR and UIC standards.
Effects of Seasonality
Our business has limited seasonality. Third quarter results may be affected by the timing of services performed under our locomotive maintenance contracts and vacation and scheduled plant shutdowns at several of our major customers. Fourth quarter results may be affected by the timing of spare parts and service orders placed by transit agencies worldwide. Quarterly results can also be affected by the timing of projects in backlog and by project delays.
Environmental Matters
The Company is subject to a variety of environmental laws and regulations governing discharges to air and water, the handling, storage and disposal of hazardous or solid waste materials and the remediation of contamination associated with
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releases of hazardous substances. The Company believes its operations currently comply in all material respects with all of the various environmental laws and regulations applicable to our business; however, there can be no assurance that environmental requirements will not change in the future or that we will not incur significant costs to comply with such requirements.
Available Information
We maintain a website at www.wabteccorp.com. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to such reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as well as the annual report to stockholders and other information, are available free of charge on this site. The Internet site and the information contained therein or connected thereto are not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K. The following are also available free of charge on this site and are available in print to any shareholder who requests them: Our Corporate Governance Guidelines, the charters of our Audit, Compensation and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees, our Code of Conduct, which is applicable to all employees, our Code of Ethics for Senior Officers, which is applicable to our executive officers, our Policies on Related Party Transactions and Conflict Minerals, and our Sustainability Report.
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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The following table provides information on our executive officers as of February 17, 2022.
OfficersAgePosition
Rafael Santana50President and Chief Executive Officer
David L. DeNinno66Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
John A. Olin61Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
Nicole Theophilus51Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resources Officer
Eric Gebhardt53Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer
Gina Trombley51Executive Vice President, Sales & Marketing & Chief Commercial Officer - Americas
Greg Sbrocco53Executive Vice President, Global Operations
Michael E. Fetsko57President, Freight and Industrial Components
Pascal Schweitzer45President, Freight Services
Rogerio Mendonca49President, Freight Equipment
Nalin Jain52President, Digital Electronics
Lillian Leroux50President, Transit
John A. Mastalerz55Senior Vice President of Finance and Chief Accounting Officer
Rafael Santana was named President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company effective July 1, 2019. Previously, he served as Executive Vice President from February 2019 to July 2019. Mr. Santana was President and Chief Executive Officer of GE Transportation since November 2017. Mr. Santana has held several global leadership positions since joining GE in 2000, including roles in the Transportation, Power and Oil and Gas businesses. Prior to being named President and Chief Executive Officer of GE Transportation, Mr. Santana was President and Chief Executive Officer of GE in Latin America. He also served as President and Chief Executive Officer of GE Oil and Gas Turbomachinery Solutions and had roles as Chief Executive Officer for GE Gas Engines and Chief Executive Officer for GE Energy in Latin America.
David L. DeNinno was named Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of the Company effective December 2016. Previously, Mr. DeNinno served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since February 2012. Previously, Mr. DeNinno served as a partner at K&L Gates LLP since May 2011 and prior to that with Reed Smith LLP.
John A. Olin was named Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer effective October 1, 2021. Prior to joining Wabtec, Mr. Olin served as the Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Harley-Davidson, where he was instrumental in driving strategic change amidst significant market disruption, including reshaping the company. Prior to Harley-Davidson, Mr. Olin served as Controller of Kraft Foods' Cheese Division, and had 12 years of financial leadership at Kraft, Oscar Mayer Foods, and Miller Brewing Company. Mr. Olin also held positions with financial services and specialized consulting firms including Ernst and Whinney (now Ernst and Young).
Nicole Theophilus was named Executive Vice President & Chief Human Resource Officer in October 2020. Prior to joining Wabtec, Ms. Theophilus served most recently as Chief Human Resource Officer of West Corporation from March 2016 through February 201. Previously she served as Executive Vice President and Chief Human Resource Officer, Vice President of Human Resources and Vice President and Chief Employment Counsel of ConAgra Corporation, where she was employed from 2006 through 2015. Prior to 2006, Ms. Theophilus was a partner with the law firm Husch Blackwell.
Eric Gebhardt was named Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer in October 2020. Prior to joining Wabtec, Mr. Gebhardt served as Managing Director of KCK-US from May 2019 through September 2020. He also served in a variety of roles with General Electric including Chief Technology Officer of GE Power from August 2017 through January 2019, Chief Product Management Officer for GE Energy Connections from February 2017 through August 2017, Chief Platforms and Operations Officer for Current from January 2016 through January 2017, and Chief Technology Officer for GE Oil & Gas from October 2012 through December 2015.
Gina Trombley was named Executive Vice President, Sales & Marketing & Chief Commercial Officer - Americas, effective September 8, 2020. Prior to joining Wabtec, Ms. Trombley served in various executive roles at Bombardier Transportation from 2017 to 2019, most recently as Vice President of Services and previously as Vice President Sales for Bombardier Transport - Americas. Ms. Trombley also held progressive commercial and marketing leadership roles at Parsons and GE Transportation.
Greg Sbrocco was named Executive Vice President, Global Operations in February 2019. Prior to this, Mr. Sbrocco was Global Supply Chain Leader for GE Transportation since September 2014. Mr. Sbrocco had been with GE since 1992 when he
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joined as an Environmental Engineer for the GE Energy business. During his tenure with GE, Mr. Sbrocco held several leadership roles in GE Energy, GE Oil and Gas, and GE Transportation.
Michael E. Fetsko was named President, Freight and Industrial Components effective January 2017. Previously, Mr. Fetsko served as Vice President and Group Executive from January 2014. He joined Wabtec in July of 2011 as Vice President, Freight Pneumatics. Prior to joining Wabtec, Mr. Fetsko served in various executive management roles with Bombardier Transportation. Prior to Bombardier, Mr. Fetsko served in various management roles with two different environmental engineering firms.
Pascal Schweitzer was named President, Freight Services in February 2019. Previously Mr. Schweitzer was the Vice President—Services of GE Transportation since April 2017. He served as General Manger – Europe – Power Services for GE Power from November 2015 through April 2017 and prior to that several positions with Alstom Power.
Rogerio Mendonca was named President, Freight Equipment in February 2021. Previously Mr. Mendonca served as Vice President for Baker Hughes from July 2017. Prior to that he served as President of GE Transportation in Latin America from April 2016 through July 2017 and in several roles leading up to that including Commercial Director and Service Operations General Manager.
Nalin Jain was named President, Digital Electronics business effective December 2020. Mr. Jain had served as President, Global Equipment since May 2019 and previously as President & CEO, International Markets since Aug 2017 for GE Transportation. Prior to that, Mr. Jain had multiple leadership roles of increasing responsibility with GE Aviation and GE Transportation, since September 2005. Mr. Jain served as Director Global Partnerships with Bombardier Inc since July 2002 and prior to that he worked for Saint Gobain.
Lilian Leroux was named President, Transit effective March 2019. Previously he served as Group President—Brakes & Safety from January 2017 to October 2019. Prior to that, Mr. Leroux held various executive management roles with Faiveley Transport, starting in January 2001.
John A. Mastalerz was named Senior Vice President of Finance and Chief Accounting Officer in February 2020. Previously, Mr. Mastalerz served as Senior Vice President, Corporate Controller and Principal Accounting Officer from July 2017 to February 2020 and as Vice President and Corporate Controller from January 2014 to July 2017. Prior to joining Wabtec, Mr. Mastalerz served in various executive management roles with the H.J. Heinz Company from January 2001 to December 2013, most recently as Corporate Controller and Principal Accounting Officer. Prior to 2001, Mr. Mastalerz was a Senior Manager with PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP.

Item 1A.RISK FACTORS
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS AND OPERATIONS
We are dependent upon key customers.
We rely on several key customers who represent a significant portion of our business. While we believe our relationships with our customers are generally good, our top customers could choose to reduce or terminate their relationships with Wabtec. In addition, many of our customers place orders for products on an as-needed basis and operate in cyclical industries. As a result, customer order levels have varied from period to period in the past and may vary significantly in the future. Such customer orders are dependent upon their markets and customers and may be subject to delays and cancellations. Furthermore, the average service life of certain products in our end markets has increased in recent years due to innovations in technologies and manufacturing processes, which has also allowed end users to replace parts less often. As a result of our dependence on our key customers, we could experience a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition if we lost any one or more of our key customers or if there is a reduction in their demand for our products.
Our business operates in a highly competitive industry.
We operate in a global, competitive marketplace and face substantial competition from a limited number of established competitors, some of which may have greater financial resources than we do, may have a more extensive low-cost sourcing strategy and presence in low-cost regions than we do or may receive significant governmental support. Price competition is strong and, coupled with the existence of a number of cost conscious customers with significant negotiating power, has historically limited our ability to increase prices. In addition to price, competition is based on product performance and technological leadership, quality, reliability of delivery and customer service and support. If our competitors invest heavily in innovation and develop products that are more efficient or effective than our products, we may not be able to compete effectively. There can be no assurance that competition in one or more of our markets will not adversely affect us and our results of operations.
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A failure to predict and react to customer demand could adversely affect our business.
If we are unable to accurately forecast demand for our existing products or to react appropriately to changes in demand, we may experience delayed product shipments and customer dissatisfaction. If demand increases significantly from current levels, both we and our suppliers may have difficulty meeting such demand, particularly if such demand increases occur rapidly. Alternatively, we may carry excess inventory if demand for our products decreases below projected levels.
Additionally, we have dedicated significant resources to the development, manufacturing and marketing of new products. Decisions to develop and market new transportation products are typically made without firm indications of customer acceptance. Moreover, by their nature, new products may require alteration of existing business methods or threaten to displace existing equipment in which our customers may have a substantial capital investment. There can be no assurance that any new products that we develop will gain widespread acceptance in the marketplace or that such products will be able to compete successfully with other new products or services that may be introduced by competitors. Furthermore, we may incur additional warranty or other costs as new products are tested and used by customers.
Failure to accurately predict and react to customer demand could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may fail to respond adequately or in a timely manner to innovative changes in new technology.
In recent years, the global transportation landscape has been characterized by rapid changes in technology, leading to innovative transportation and logistics concepts that could change the way the railway industry does business. There may be additional innovations impacting the railway industry that we cannot yet foresee. Any failure by us to quickly adapt to and adopt new innovations in products and processes desired by our customers may result in a significant loss of demand for our product and service offerings. In addition, advances in technology may require us to increase investments in order to remain competitive, and our customers may not be willing to accept higher prices to cover the cost of these investments.
Our revenues are subject to cyclical variations in the railway and passenger transit markets and changes in government spending.
The railway industry historically has been subject to significant fluctuations due to overall economic conditions, the use of alternate methods of transportation and the levels of government spending on railway projects. In economic downturns, railroads have deferred, and may defer, certain expenditures in order to conserve cash in the short term. For example, the economic slowdown that was caused by COVID-19 impacted the timing of some orders, as customers deferred the delivery of some goods and services to future years. Reductions in freight traffic may reduce demand for our replacement products.
The passenger transit railroad industry is also cyclical and is influenced by a variety of factors. New passenger transit car orders vary from year to year and are influenced by a variety of factors, including major replacement programs, the construction or expansion of transit systems by transit authorities and the quality and cost of alternative modes of transportation. To the extent that future funding for proposed public projects is curtailed or withdrawn altogether as a result of changes in political, economic, fiscal or other conditions beyond our control, such projects may be delayed or canceled, resulting in a potential loss of business for us, including transit aftermarket and new transit car orders. There can be no assurance that economic conditions will be favorable or that there will not be significant fluctuations adversely affecting the industry as a whole and Wabtec.
Our backlog is not necessarily indicative of the level of our future revenues.
Our backlog represents future production and estimated potential revenue attributable to firm contracts with, or written orders from, our customers for delivery in various periods.  Instability in the global economy, negative conditions in the global credit markets, volatility in the industries that our products serve, changes in legislative policy, adverse changes in the financial condition of our customers, adverse changes in the availability of raw materials and supplies, or un-remedied contract breaches could possibly lead to contract termination or cancellations of orders in our backlog or request for deferred deliveries of our backlog orders, each of which could adversely affect our cash flows and results of operations. For example, although the Company saw no material cancellations of backlog during the year ended December 31, 2021, the economic slowdown that was caused by COVID-19 did impact the timing of some orders in backlog as the delivery of goods and services previously expected to be completed in the current year were pushed out to subsequent periods.
Equipment failures, interruptions, delays in deliveries or extensive damage to our facilities, supply chains, distribution systems or information technology systems, could adversely affect our business.
All of our facilities, equipment, supply chains, distribution systems and information technology systems are subject to the risk of catastrophic loss due to unanticipated events, such as cyber attacks, disease outbreak, fires, earthquakes, explosions, floods, tornadoes, hurricanes or weather conditions. An interruption in our manufacturing capabilities, supply chains, distribution systems or information technology systems, whether as a result of such catastrophic loss or any other reason, could reduce, prevent or delay our production and shipment of our product offerings, result in defective products or services, damage customer relationships and our reputation and result in legal exposure and large repair or replacement expenses. This could result in the delay or termination of orders, the loss of future sales and a negative impact to our reputation with our customers.
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Third-party insurance coverage that we maintain with respect to such matters will vary from time to time in both type and amount depending on cost, availability and our decisions regarding risk retention, and may be unavailable or insufficient to protect us against losses. Any of these risks coming to fruition could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Disruption of our supply chain could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Our ability to make, move, and sell our products is critical to our success. Damage or disruption to our supply chain, including third-party manufacturing or transportation and distribution capabilities, could impair our ability to manufacture or sell our products. Failure to take adequate steps to mitigate the likelihood or potential impact of disruptions, or to effectively manage such events if they occur, particularly when a product is sourced from a single supplier or location, could adversely affect our business or financial results. Due to the ongoing impacts and uncertainty of continued impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and the global government actions to contain it, some of our supply chains, particularly in China, India, the U.S., and Europe, have been, and continue to be, impacted. Supply chain disruptions and labor availability have caused component and chip shortages resulting in an adverse effect on the timing of the Company’s revenue generation. Additionally, broad-based inflation, escalation of metals and commodities costs, transportation and logistics costs and labor costs have all resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic. There can be no assurance that there will not be further, or deeper, supply chain disruptions, or that the steps we are taking to mitigate such disruptions will be effective or achieve their desired results in a timely fashion.
In addition, disputes with significant suppliers, including disputes regarding pricing or performance, could adversely affect our ability to supply products to our customers and could materially and adversely affect our product sales, financial condition, and results of operations.
We intend to pursue acquisitions, joint ventures and alliances that involve a number of inherent risks, any of which may cause us not to realize anticipated benefits.
One aspect of our business strategy is to selectively pursue acquisitions, joint ventures and alliances that we believe will improve our market position and provide opportunities to realize operating synergies. These transactions involve inherent risks and uncertainties, any one of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition including:
difficulties in achieving identified financial and operating synergies, including the integration of operations, services and products;
diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;
the assumption of unknown liabilities; and
unanticipated changes in the market conditions, business and economic factors affecting such an acquisition, joint venture or alliance.
We cannot assure that we will be able to consummate any future acquisitions, joint ventures or other business combinations. If we are unable to identify or consummate suitable acquisitions, joint ventures or alliances, we may be unable to fully implement our business strategy, and our business and results of operations may be adversely affected as a result. In addition, our ability to engage in such strategic transactions will be dependent on our ability to raise substantial capital, and we may not be able to raise the funds necessary to implement this strategy on terms satisfactory to us, if at all.
The integration of our recently completed acquisitions may not result in anticipated improvements in market position or the realization of anticipated operating synergies or may take longer to realize than expected.
Although we believe that our recent acquisitions will improve our market position and realize positive operating results, including operating synergies, operating expense reductions and overhead cost savings, we cannot be assured that these improvements will be obtained or the timing of such improvements. The management and acquisition of businesses involves substantial risks, any of which may result in a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations, including:
the uncertainty that an acquired business will achieve anticipated operating results;
significant expenses to integrate;
diversion of management’s attention from business operations to integration matters;
departure of key personnel from the acquired business;
effectively managing entrepreneurial spirit and decision-making;
integration of different information systems;
unanticipated costs and exposure to unforeseen liabilities; and
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impairment of assets.
The effects of COVID-19 and other potential future public health crises, epidemics, pandemics or similar events on our business, operating results and cash flows are uncertain.
We face a wide variety of risks related to health epidemics, pandemics and similar outbreaks, including the global outbreak of COVID-19. Since first reported in late 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically impacted the global health and economic environment, including millions of confirmed cases, business slowdowns or shutdowns, government challenges and market volatility of an unprecedented nature. Although we have, to date, managed to continue most of our operations, we cannot predict the future course of events nor can we assure that this global pandemic, including its economic impact, will not have a material adverse impact on our business, financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operational and financial performance remains uncertain and will depend on future pandemic related developments, including the duration of the pandemic, any potential subsequent waves of COVID-19 and new strains of the virus, the effectiveness, distribution and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, and related government actions to prevent and manage disease spread, all of which are uncertain and cannot be predicted. Our operations may be further impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic if significant portions of our workforce are unable to work effectively, including because of illness, quarantines, travel restrictions or absenteeism; steps the company has taken to protect health and well-being; government actions; facility closures; work slowdowns or stoppages; inadequate supplies or resources (such as reliable personal protective equipment, testing and vaccines); or other circumstances related to COVID-19. Governments around the world have taken steps to mitigate some of the more severe anticipated economic effects, but there can be no assurance that such steps will be effective or achieve their desired results in a timely fashion.
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in operational and supply chain disruptions for us and our customers and may further adversely affect operations and the operations of our customers and suppliers. Accordingly, COVID-19 had a materially adverse impact on our operations and business results for the years ended December 31, 2021, and 2020. Supply chain disruptions and shortages in labor availability have caused component and chip shortages, which have resulted in adverse effects on the timing of our revenue generation. Additionally, broad-based inflation, escalation of metals and commodities costs, transportation and logistics costs and labor costs have all resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic and have adversely impacted our business. We expect COVID-19 to continue to have a materially adverse impact on our operations and business results into 2022. The spread of COVID-19, and the emergence of new strains of the virus, have caused us to modify our business practices and to implement significant proactive measures to protect the health and safety of employees, and we may take further actions as may be required by government authorities or as we determine are appropriate under the circumstances. There is no certainty that such measures will be sufficient to mitigate the continued risks posed by the pandemic.
The COVID-19 pandemic and related volatility in financial markets and deterioration of national and global economic conditions could affect our business and operations in a variety of ways. For example, we have experienced and could experience further operational disruptions and financial losses as a result of the following:
a decrease in demand for our products as a result of COVID-19 and cost control measures implemented by our customers;
delays in orders or delivery of orders, the occurrence of which negatively impacts our cash conversion cycle and ability to convert our backlog into cash;
inability to collect full or partial payments from customers due to deterioration in customer liquidity, including customer bankruptcies;
a shutdown of one or multiple of our manufacturing facilities due to government restrictions or illness in connection     with COVID-19.
The continued spread of COVID-19 has also led to disruption and volatility in the global capital markets, which depending on future developments may make it more costly or difficult for us to obtain debt or equity financing, including to refinance our existing debt, or to identify or execute on investment opportunities, in each case on terms and within time periods acceptable to us. We are also monitoring the impacts of COVID-19 on the fair value of our assets. While we do not currently anticipate any material impairments on our assets as a result of COVID-19, future changes in expectations for sales, earnings and cash flows related to intangible assets and goodwill below our current projections could cause these assets to be impaired.
We continue to work with our stakeholders (including customers, employees, suppliers and local communities) in an effort to address responsibly this global pandemic. We continue to monitor the situation, to assess further possible implications to our employees, business, supply chain and customers, and to take certain actions in an effort to mitigate various adverse consequences. However, uncertainty around general global economic and market conditions, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, will have an impact on our sales and operations in 2022 and beyond.
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We expect that the longer the COVID-19 pandemic, including its economic disruption, continues, the greater the adverse impact on our business operations, financial performance and results of operations could be. Given the tremendous uncertainties and variables, we cannot at this time predict the impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic, or any future pandemic, but any one could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial position, results of operations and/or cash flows.
RISKS RELATED TO INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS
A growing portion of our sales may be derived from our international operations, which exposes us to certain risks inherent in doing business on an international level.
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, approximately 60% of our consolidated net sales were to customers outside of the United States. We intend to continue to expand our international operations, including in emerging markets, in the future. Our global headquarters for the Transit group is located in France, and we conduct other international operations through a variety of wholly and majority-owned subsidiaries and joint ventures, including in Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, India, Italy, Kazakhstan, Macedonia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Spain, South Africa, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. As a result, we are subject to various risks, any one of which could have a material adverse effect on those operations and on our business as a whole, including:
lack of complete operating control;
lack of local business experience;
currency exchange fluctuations and devaluations;
restrictions on currency conversion or the transfer of funds or limitations on our ability to repatriate income or capital;
the complexities of operating within multiple tax jurisdictions;
foreign trade restrictions and exchange controls;
adverse impacts of international trade policies, such as import quotas, capital controls or tariffs;
difficulty enforcing agreements and intellectual property rights;
the challenges of complying with complex and changing laws, regulations, and policies of foreign governments;
the difficulties involved in staffing and managing widespread operations;
the potential for nationalization of enterprises;
economic, political and social instability;
possible local catastrophes, such as natural disasters and epidemics; and
possible terrorist attacks, conflicts and wars, including those against American interests.
Our exposure to the risks associated with international operations may intensify if our international operations expand in     the future.
We may incur increased costs due to fluctuations in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates
In the ordinary course of business, we are exposed to increases in interest rates that may adversely affect funding costs associated with variable-rate debt and changes in foreign currency exchange rates. We are subject to currency exchange rate risk to the extent that our costs may be denominated in currencies other than those in which we earn and report revenues and vice versa. In addition, a decrease in the value of any of these currencies relative to the U.S. dollar could reduce our profits from non-U.S. operations and the translated value of the net assets of our non-U.S. operations when reported in U.S. dollars in our consolidated financial statements. We may seek to minimize these risks through the use of interest rate swap contracts and currency hedging agreements. There can be no assurance that any of these measures will be effective. Material changes in interest or exchange rates could result in material losses to us.
We have substantial operations located in emerging markets, and are subject to regulatory, economic, social and political uncertainties in such markets.
We have substantial operations located in emerging markets, such as Brazil, India, Kazakhstan, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Operations in such emerging markets are inherently risky due to a number of regulatory, economic, social and political uncertainties. These risks include economies that may be dependent on only a few products and are therefore subject to significant fluctuations, weak legal systems which may affect our ability to enforce contractual rights, possible exchange controls, unstable governments, nationalization or privatization actions or other government actions affecting the flow of goods and currency.
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Significant changes in economic and regulatory policy in emerging countries as well as social or political uncertainties could significantly harm business and economic conditions in these markets generally and could disproportionately impact the rail industry, which could adversely affect our business and prospects in these markets.
In addition, physical and financial infrastructure may be less developed in some emerging countries than that of many developed nations. Any disruptions with respect to banking and financial infrastructure, communication systems or any public facility, including transportation infrastructure, could disrupt our normal business activity. Such disruptions could interrupt our business operations and significantly harm our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
RISKS RELATED TO MACRO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND POLICIES
Prolonged unfavorable economic and market conditions could adversely affect our business.
Unfavorable general economic and market conditions in the United States and internationally, particularly in our key end markets, could have a negative impact on our sales and operations. To the extent that these factors result in continued instability of capital markets, shortages of raw materials or component parts, longer sales cycles, deferral or delay of customer orders or an inability to market our products effectively, our business and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
We may be exposed to raw material shortages, supply shortages and fluctuations in raw material, energy and commodity prices.
We purchase energy, steel, aluminum, copper, rubber and rubber-based materials, chemicals, polymers and other key manufacturing inputs from outside sources, and traditionally have not had long-term pricing contracts with our pure raw material suppliers. The costs of these raw materials have been volatile historically and are influenced by factors that are outside our control. If we are unable to pass increases in the costs of our raw materials on to our customers, experience a lag in our ability to pass increases to our customers, or operational efficiencies are not achieved, our operating margins and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.
Our businesses compete globally for key production inputs. In addition, we rely upon third-party suppliers, including certain single-sourced suppliers, for various components for our products. In the event of a shortage or discontinuation of certain raw materials or key inputs, we may experience challenges sourcing certain of our components to meet our production requirements and may not be able to arrange for alternative sources of certain raw materials or key inputs. Any such shortage may materially adversely affect our competitive position versus companies that are able to better or more cheaply source such raw materials or key inputs.
Changes to international trade policies, including tariffs and foreign trade restrictions, could adversely affect our business.
As a global transportation company, we generate export sales from our U.S. operations and also derive international sales through our foreign subsidiaries, licensees and joint ventures. We also do business with industry suppliers located in various international markets. A protectionist trade environment in either the United States or those foreign countries in which we do business, such as a change in the current tariff structures, export compliance or other trade policies, may adversely affect our business. In particular, such policies may impact or delay our customers' investments in our products, reduce the competitiveness of our products in certain markets, and inhibit our ability to cost-effectively purchase necessary inputs from certain suppliers. In addition, to the extent developments in international trade relations result in reduced global trade or slower growth in global trade, it is likely that this would result in reductions in investment in freight and transit rail.
International trade policies are affected by a diverse array of factors, including global and national economic and political conditions, which make it impossible for us to predict future developments regarding tariffs and other trade restrictions. Although we actively monitor developments in international trade and proactively engage in efforts to mitigate the effect of trade policies, there can be no guarantee that these efforts will be successful.
LEGAL AND REGULATORY RISKS
We are subject to a variety of laws and regulations, including anti-corruption laws, in various jurisdictions.
We are subject to various laws, rules and regulations administered by authorities in jurisdictions in which we do business, such as the anti-corruption laws of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the French Law n° 2016-1691 (Sapin II) and the U.K. Bribery Act, relating to our business and our employees. We are also subject to other laws and regulations governing our international operations, including regulations administered by the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security, the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, and various non-U.S. government entities, including applicable export control regulations, economic sanctions on countries and persons, customs requirements, currency exchange regulations, and transfer pricing regulations. Despite our policies, procedures and compliance programs, our internal controls and compliance systems may not be able to protect us from prohibited acts willfully committed by our employees, agents or business partners that would violate such applicable laws and regulations. Any such improper acts could
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damage our reputation, subject us to civil or criminal judgments, fines or penalties, and could otherwise disrupt our business, and as a result, could materially adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, our manufacturing operations are subject to safety, operations, maintenance and mechanical standards, rules and regulations enforced by various federal and state agencies and industry organizations both domestically and internationally. Our business may be adversely impacted by new rules and regulations or changes to existing rules or regulations, which could require additional maintenance or substantial modification or refurbishment of certain of our products or could make such products obsolete or require them to be phased out prior to their useful lives. We are unable to predict what impact these or other regulatory changes may have, if any, on our business or the industry as a whole. We cannot assure that costs incurred to comply with any new standards or regulations will not be material to our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to a variety of environmental laws and regulations.
We are subject to a variety of increasingly stringent environmental laws and regulations governing discharges to air and water, substances in products, the handling, storage and disposal of hazardous or solid waste materials and the remediation of contamination associated with releases of hazardous substances. We have incurred, and will continue to incur, both operating and capital costs to comply with environmental laws and regulations, including costs associated with the clean-up and investigation of some of our current and former properties and offsite disposal locations. We believe our operations currently comply in all material respects with all of the various environmental laws and regulations applicable to our business; however, there can be no assurance that environmental requirements will not change in the future or that we will not incur significant costs to comply with such requirements. Failure to comply with environmental laws and regulations could have significant consequences on our business and results of operations, including the imposition of substantial fines and sanctions for violations, injunctive relief (including requirements that we limit or cease operations at affected facilities), and reputational risk.
In addition, certain of our products are subject to extensive, and increasingly stringent, statutory and regulatory requirements governing, e.g., emissions and noise, including standards imposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the European Union and other regulatory agencies around the world. We have made, and will continue to make, significant capital and research expenditures relating to compliance with these standards. The successful development and introduction of new and enhanced products in order to comply with new regulatory requirements are subject to other risks, such as delays in product development, cost over-runs and unanticipated technical and manufacturing difficulties. In addition to these risks, the nature and timing of government implementation and enforcement of these standards-particularly in emerging markets-are unpredictable and subject to change.
Future climate change regulation could result in increased operating costs, affect the demand for our products or affect the ability of our critical suppliers to meet our needs.
Management believes it is reasonably likely that the scientific and political attention to issues concerning the existence and extent of climate change, and the role of human activity in it, will continue, with the potential for further regulation that affects the company’s operations. The potential challenges posed by evolving climate change policy and prospective legislation are heavily dependent on the nature and degree of climate change legislation and the extent to which it applies to our industry. Although uncertain, these developments could increase costs or reduce the demand for the products the company sells. The company’s production and processing operations typically result in emissions of greenhouse gases. Likewise, emissions arise from midstream and downstream operations, including operations of our locomotives and other products. Finally, although beyond the control of the company, the use of fuels and related products by operators also results in greenhouse gas emissions that may be regulated. International agreements, domestic legislation and regulatory measures to limit greenhouse gas emissions are currently in various phases of discussion or implementation. While we are carefully monitoring developments and reviewing the challenges associated with alternative proposals, at this time, we cannot predict the ultimate impact of climate change and climate change legislation on our operations. Further, when or if these impacts may occur cannot be assessed until legislative policy is more developed and specific legislative proposals begin to take shape. Any laws or regulations that may be adopted to restrict or reduce emissions of greenhouse gas could require us to incur increased operating costs and could have an adverse effect on demand for our products. In addition, the price and availability of certain of the raw materials that we use could vary in the future as a result of environmental laws and regulations affecting our suppliers. An increase in the price of our raw materials or a decline in their availability could adversely affect our operating margins or result in reduced demand for our products.
The occurrence of litigation in which we are, or could be, named as a defendant is unpredictable.
From time to time, we are subject, directly or through our subsidiaries, to litigation or other commercial disputes and other legal and regulatory proceedings with respect to our business, customers, suppliers, creditors, stockholders, product liability (including, asbestos claims), intellectual property infringement, competition and antitrust claims, warranty claims or environmental-related matters.
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Due to the inherent uncertainties of any litigation, commercial disputes or other legal or regulatory proceedings, we cannot accurately predict their ultimate outcome, including the outcome of any related appeals. We may incur significant expense to defend or otherwise address current or future claims. Although we maintain insurance policies for certain risks, we cannot make assurances that this insurance will be adequate to protect us from all material judgments and expenses related to potential future claims or that these levels of insurance will be available in the future at economical prices or at all. In addition, although in some cases we may be indemnified by non-affiliated entities that retain liabilities in connection with specific matters, there can be no assurance that these indemnitors will remain financially viable and capable of satisfying their obligations.
Any litigation, even a claim without merit, could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Our manufacturer’s warranties or product liability may expose us to potentially significant claims.
We warrant the workmanship and materials of many of our products. Accordingly, we are subject to a risk of product liability or warranty claims in the event that the failure of any of our products results in personal injury or death or does not conform to our customers’ specifications. In addition, in recent years, we have introduced a number of new products for which we do not have a history of warranty experience. Although we currently maintain liability insurance coverage, we cannot assure that product liability claims, if made, would not exceed our insurance coverage limits or that insurance will continue to be available on commercially acceptable terms, if at all. The possibility exists for these types of warranty claims to result in costly product recalls, significant repair costs and damage to our reputation.
RISKS RELATED TO DATA SECURITY AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
If we are not able to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, we may be adversely affected.
Our success can be impacted by our ability to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We rely primarily on patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets and unfair competition laws, as well as license agreements and other contractual provisions, to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. However, filing, prosecuting and defending patents on our products in all countries and jurisdictions throughout the world would be prohibitively expensive. Moreover, existing U.S. legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property rights offer only limited protection, may not provide us with any competitive advantages and may be challenged by third parties. The laws of countries other than the United States may be even less protective of intellectual property rights. As a result, a significant portion of our technology is not patented, and we may be unable or may not seek to obtain patent protection for this technology. Further, although we routinely conduct anti-counterfeiting activities in multiple jurisdictions, we have encountered counterfeit reproductions of our products or products that otherwise infringe on our intellectual property rights. Counterfeit components of low quality may negatively impact our brand value. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may be unable to prevent third parties from infringing upon, counterfeiting or misappropriating our intellectual property or otherwise gaining access to our technology. If we fail to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, then our business, results of operations and financial condition could be negatively impacted.
In addition, we operate in industries in which there are many third-party owners of intellectual property rights. Owners of intellectual property that we need to conduct our business as it evolves may be unwilling to license such intellectual property rights to us on terms we consider reasonable. Third party intellectual property owners may assert infringement claims against us based on their intellectual property portfolios. If we are sued for intellectual property infringement, we may incur significant expenses investigating and defending such claims, even if we prevail.
We face cybersecurity and data protection risks relating to cyber-attacks and information technology failures that could cause loss of confidential information and other business disruptions.
We rely extensively on the security, stability, and availability of technology systems in our business. We also collect, process, and retain sensitive and confidential customer information, including proprietary business information, personal data and other information that may be subject to privacy and security laws, regulations and/or customer-imposed data protection controls. Our business may be adversely impacted by unintentional technology disruptions, including those resulting from programming errors, employee operational errors, software defects, and product vulnerabilities.

We also provide technological products integral to train operation. Accordingly, our business may be adversely impacted by disruptions to our own or third-party information technology infrastructure, which could result from cybersecurity incidents, including, but not limited to, unauthorized access to the Company’s information technology systems, data access or acquisition, and/or encryption of the Company’s environment. For instance, one of our vendors publicly disclosed vulnerabilities in its operating system that we use for certain Wabtec products. A successful exploitation of our own or our vendors’ information technology infrastructure could result in service interruptions, safety hazards, misappropriation of confidential information, process failures, security breaches or other operational difficulties. Such an event could result in decreased revenues and increased capital, insurance or operating costs, including the increased costs of security to protect the
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Company’s infrastructure, among other results. Insurance maintained by the Company to protect against loss of business and other related consequences resulting from cyber incidents may not be sufficient to cover all damages. A disruption or compromise of the Company’s technology systems, even for short periods of time, could have a material adverse effect.
RISKS RELATED TO HUMAN CAPITAL
Labor shortages and labor disputes may have a material adverse effect on our operations and profitability.
We depend on skilled labor in our manufacturing and other businesses. Due to the competitive nature of the labor markets in which we operate, we may not be able to retain, recruit and train the personnel we require, particularly when the economy expands, production rates are high or competition for such skilled labor increases.
We collectively bargain with labor unions at some of our operations throughout the world. Failure to reach an agreement could result in strikes or other labor protests which could disrupt our operations. Furthermore, non-union employees in certain countries have the right to strike. If we were to experience a strike or work stoppage, it would be difficult for us to find a sufficient number of employees with the necessary skills to replace these employees. We cannot assure that we will reach any such agreement or that we will not encounter strikes or other types of conflicts with the labor unions of our personnel.
Any such labor shortages or labor disputes could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, could cause us to lose revenues and customers and might have permanent effects on our business.
We rely on our management team and other key personnel.
We depend on the skills, working relationships, and continued services of key personnel, including our experienced management team, and other key employees. In addition, our ability to achieve our operating goals depends on our ability to identify, hire, train, and retain qualified individuals. We compete with other companies both within and outside of our industry for talented personnel, and we may lose key personnel or fail to attract, train, and retain other talented personnel. Any such loss or failure could adversely affect our product sales, financial condition, and operating results. If we lose key personnel, because they terminate their employment or retire, or as a result of illness, disability or death, or if an insufficient number of employees is retained to maintain effective operations, our business activities may be adversely affected and our management team's attention may be diverted. In addition, we may not be able to locate suitable replacements for any key personnel that we lose, or we may not be able to hire potential replacements on reasonable terms, all of which could adversely affect our product sales, financial condition, and operating results.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR INDEBTEDNESS
Our indebtedness could adversely affect our financial health.
At December 31, 2021, we had total debt of $4.1 billion, primarily related to Senior Notes. Being indebted could have important consequences to us. For example, our indebtedness could:
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our indebtedness, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flow to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other general corporate purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industries in which we operate;
place us at a disadvantage compared to competitors that have less debt; and
limit our ability to borrow additional funds.
Moreover, our Credit Agreement and the indentures governing our senior notes permit us to incur substantial additional indebtedness, which may further contribute to, or exacerbate the impact of, the foregoing impacts.
The indentures for our outstanding senior notes and our Credit Agreement contain various covenants that limit our management’s discretion in the operation of our businesses.
Our Credit Agreement subjects us to customary (i) affirmative covenants, including requirements with respect to certain reporting obligations on us and our subsidiaries, and (ii) negative covenants, including limitations on: indebtedness; liens; restricted payments; fundamental changes (including certain changes in control); business activities; transactions with affiliates; restrictive agreements; changes in fiscal year; and use of proceeds. In addition, we are required to maintain (i) a ratio of EBITDA to interest expense of at least 3.00 to 1.00 over each period of four consecutive fiscal quarters ending on the last day of a fiscal quarter and (ii) a Leverage Ratio, calculated as of the last day of a fiscal quarter for a period of four consecutive fiscal quarters, of 3.25 to 1.00 or less; provided that, in the second quarter of 2021, the Credit Agreement was amended so that we may, upon our request, increase the maximum Leverage Ratio to (x) 3.75 to 1.00 at the end of the fiscal quarter in which our acquisition of Nordco was consummated and each of the three fiscal quarters immediately following such fiscal quarter and (y)
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3.50 to 1.00 at the end of each of the fourth and fifth full fiscal quarters after the consummation of such acquisition. The Company has not requested any such increase in the leverage ratio at this time.
The indentures under which our Senior Notes were issued contain covenants and restrictions which limit, subject to certain exceptions, certain sale and leaseback transactions with respect to principal properties, the incurrence of secured debt without equally and ratably securing the senior notes and certain merger and consolidation transactions. In addition, the indentures require that we offer to repurchase our outstanding Senior Notes upon the occurrence of certain change of control triggering events.
Item 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
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Item 2.PROPERTIES
Facilities
The following table provides certain summary information about the principal facilities owned or leased by the Company as of December 31, 2021. The Company believes that its facilities and equipment are generally in good condition and that, together with scheduled capital improvements, they are adequate for its present and immediately projected needs. Leases on the facilities are mainly long-term and generally include options to renew.  
Location
 
Primary Use
 
Segment
 
Own/Lease
 
Approximate
Square Feet 
Domestic     
Erie, PAManufacturing/Warehouse/OfficeFreightOwn3,800,000 
Grove City, PAManufacturing/WarehouseFreightOwn486,000 
Wilmerding, PAManufacturing/ServiceFreightOwn365,000 (1)
Salem, VAManufacturingFreightOwn320,000 
Justin, TexasManufacturing/WarehouseFreightOwn305,000  
Fort Worth, TexasManufacturing/WarehouseFreightOwn304,000  
Houston, TexasManufacturing/ServiceFreightOwn280,000  
Hanover Park, IllinoisManufacturingFreightLease250,000  
Pittsburgh, PAOfficeGlobal HQLease84,000 
International 
Shenyang, ChinaManufacturing/Warehouse/OfficeTransitOwn336,000  
Doncaster, UKManufacturingTransitOwn330,000  
Changzhou, ChinaManufacturingTransitOwn316,000 
Northampton, UKManufacturingFreightLease300,000  
Shenyang City, ChinaManufacturingTransitLease291,000  
Piossasco, ItalyManufacturingTransitOwn301,000  
Burton-on-Trent, UKManufacturing/OfficeTransitLease260,000 
Bangalore, IndiaManufacturingFreight/TransitLease168,000 

(1)Approximately 250,000 square feet are currently used in connection with the Company’s manufacturing operations. The remainder is leased to a third party.
Item  3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Information with respect to legal proceedings is included in Note 18 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report and incorporated by reference herein.
Item  4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item  5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
The Common Stock of the Company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol “WAB.” As of February 11, 2022, there were 185,290,114 shares of Common Stock outstanding held by approximately 109,650 holders of record.

The Company has historically paid quarterly dividends to shareholders, subject to quarterly approval by our Board of Directors, currently at a rate of approximately $111 million annually. The declaration and payment of future dividends are at the discretion of the Board of Directors.
The following performance graph and related information shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor shall such information be incorporated by reference to any future filings under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, each as amended, except to the extent that Wabtec specifically incorporates it by reference into such filing. The graph below compares the total stockholder return through December 31, 2021, of Wabtec’s common stock to (i) the S&P 500 and (ii) our peer group of manufacturing companies which consists of the following publicly traded companies: AGCO, AMETEK, CSX, Cummins, Dover, Emerson Electric, Fortive, Howmet Aerospace, Illinois Tool Works, Norfolk Southern, Oshkosh, Parker-Hannifin, Rockwell Automation, Terex, Textron, The Greenbrier Companies, Trinity Industries, and Xylem.
https://cdn.kscope.io/d58457cc1575b87087076b5fdf1ae0ff-wab-20211231_g1.jpg







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Issuer Purchases of Common Stock
MonthTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Programs (1)
Maximum Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Programs (1)
In millions
October 2021— $— — $300 
November 20211,048,036 $95.40 1,048,036 $200 
December 2021— $— — $200 
Total quarter ended December 31, 20211,048,036 $95.40 1,048,036 $200 

(1)    On February 10, 2022, the Board of Directors increased its stock repurchase authorization to increase the amount available for stock repurchases to $750 million of the Company’s outstanding shares. This new stock repurchase authorization supersedes the previous authorization of $500 million, of which $151 million remained at the reauthorization date. No time limit was set for the completion of the program which conforms to the requirements under the Senior Credit Facility and the Senior Notes currently outstanding. The Company may repurchase shares in the future at any time, depending upon market conditions, our capital needs and other factors. Purchases of shares may be made by open market purchases or privately negotiated purchases and may be made pursuant to Rule 10b5-1 plan or otherwise.
Item 6.[RESERVED]


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Item 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
OVERVIEW
Wabtec is one of the world’s largest providers of locomotives, value-added, technology-based equipment, systems and services for the global freight rail and passenger transit industries. Our highly engineered products, which are intended to enhance safety, improve productivity and reduce maintenance costs for customers, can be found on most locomotives, freight cars, passenger transit cars and buses around the world. Our core products and services are essential in the safe and efficient operation of freight rail and passenger transit vehicles. Wabtec is a global company with operations in over 50 countries and our products can be found in more than 100 countries throughout the world. In 2021, approximately 60% of the Company’s net sales came from customers outside the U.S.
Wabtec’s long-term financial goals are to drive strong cash flow conversion, maintain a strong credit profile while minimizing our overall cost of capital, increase margins through strict attention to cost controls, drive improved efficiencies across the business, and increase revenues through a focused growth strategy, including product innovation and new technologies, global and market expansion, aftermarket products and services, and acquisitions. In addition, Management evaluates the Company’s current operational performance through measures such as safety, quality and on-time delivery.
The Company primarily serves the worldwide freight and transit rail industries. As such, our operating results are largely dependent on the level of activity, financial condition and capital spending plans of railroads and passenger transit agencies around the world, and transportation equipment manufacturers who serve those markets. Many factors influence these industries, including general economic conditions; traffic volumes, as measured by freight carloads and passenger ridership; government spending on public transportation; and investment in new technologies. In general, trends such as increasing urbanization, a focus on sustainability and environmental awareness, an aging equipment fleet, and growth in global trade are expected to drive continued investment in freight and transit rail.
The Company monitors a variety of factors and statistics to gauge market activity. Freight rail markets around the world are driven primarily by overall economic conditions and activity, while Transit markets are driven primarily by government funding and passenger ridership. Changes in these market drivers can cause fluctuations in demand for Wabtec's products and services.
Business Update
The COVID-19 pandemic has continued to impact our sales channels, supply chain, manufacturing operations, workforce and other key aspects of our operations. The Company continues to monitor the situation and guidance from international and domestic authorities, including federal, state, and local public health authorities; however, there are numerous uncertainties, including the duration and severity of the pandemic, availability and effectiveness of vaccines, impact of variants of the disease, actions that may be taken by governmental authorities and private industry, including preventing or curtailing the operations of our plants, the potential impact on global economic activity, global supply chain operations, our employees, our customers, suppliers and end-markets and other consequences that could negatively impact our business. We also face the possibility that government policies may become more restrictive especially if COVID-19 transmission rates increase in certain areas. As a result of these numerous uncertainties, we are unable to specifically predict the extent and length of time the COVID-19 pandemic will negatively impact our business.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the uncertainty around global economic and market conditions, which impacts our sales and operations. To the extent that these factors cause, or exacerbate, instability of capital markets, shortages of raw materials or component parts, longer sales cycles, deferral or delay of customer orders or an inability to market our products effectively, our business and results of operations could be materially adversely affected, and the materially adverse impacts that we have experienced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic could continue or worsen. In addition, we face risks associated with our growth strategy including the level of investment that customers are willing to make in new technologies developed by the industry and the Company, and risks inherent in global expansion. When necessary, we will modify our financial and operating strategies to address changes in market conditions and risks.
Although the U.S. and other international governments deemed rail transportation as “critical infrastructure” providing essential services during the COVID-19 pandemic, the COVID-19 pandemic had a materially adverse impact on our operations and business results for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, which is discussed in more detail in the Results of Operations section below. Supply chain disruptions and labor availability have caused component, raw material and chip shortages resulting in an adverse effect on the timing of the Company’s revenue generation. Additionally, broad-based inflation, escalation of metals and commodities costs, transportation and logistics costs and labor costs have all resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company has implemented various mitigating actions to lessen the impact of supply chain disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. These actions include price escalations in long-term contracts, implementing price surcharges, driving operational efficiencies through various cost mitigation efforts and discretionary spend management,
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strategic sourcing alignments, and accelerating integration synergies where possible. The Company expects to continue to realize these increased costs over the next few quarters.
Uncertainty around general global economic and market conditions, exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, will have an impact on our sales and operations in 2022 and beyond. To the extent that these factors cause instability of capital markets, supply chain disruptions including shortages of raw materials or component parts, labor availability, longer sales cycles, deferral or delay of customer orders, or an inability to market our products effectively, our business and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.
Cybersecurity Exposure
During the third quarter 2021, one of our vendors publicly disclosed vulnerabilities in one of its operating systems that is used in a range of products across the rail sector and other industries, including in certain Wabtec products. In response, Wabtec reviewed its digital onboard locomotive products and locomotive control systems to determine which products may be affected and the potential impact to Wabtec, our customers and other relevant parties. To date, we are unaware of any exploitation of these vulnerabilities; however, we are working closely with our vendor to appropriately address potentially impacted products. Additionally, we have communicated with potentially affected customers and discussed mitigation strategies.

ACQUISITIONS
Wabtec acquired Nordco, a leading North American supplier of new, rebuilt and used maintenance of way equipment, on March 31, 2021, and GE Transportation, a former business unit of GE, on February 25, 2019. For additional information related to these acquisitions refer to Note 3 of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report.


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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Consolidated Results
2021 COMPARED TO 2020
The following table shows our Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years indicated.
 For the year ended December 31,
In millions20212020
Net sales:
Sales of goods$6,205 $6,233 
Sales of services1,617 1,323 
Total net sales7,822 7,556 
Cost of sales:
Cost of goods(4,545)(4,629)
Cost of services(908)(790)
Total cost of sales(5,453)(5,419)
Gross profit2,369 2,137 
Operating expenses:
Selling, general and administrative expenses(1,030)(948)
Engineering expenses(176)(162)
Amortization expense(287)(282)
Total operating expenses(1,493)(1,392)
Income from operations876 745 
Other income and expenses:
Interest expense, net(177)(199)
Other income, net38 11 
Income before income taxes 737 557 
Income tax expense(172)(145)
Net income565 412 
Less: Net (income) loss attributable to noncontrolling interest(7)
Net income attributable to Wabtec shareholders$558 $414 
The following table shows the major components of the change in net sales in 2021 from 2020:
In millionsFreight SegmentTransit SegmentTotal
2020 Net Sales
$5,082 $2,474 $7,556 
Acquisitions138 — 138 
Foreign Exchange23 111 134 
Organic(4)(2)(6)
2021 Net Sales
$5,239 $2,583 $7,822 
The following discussion compares our results for the year ended December 31, 2021 to the year ended December 31, 2020. The discussion comparing our results for the year ended December 31, 2020 to the year ended December 31, 2019 is included within Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on February 19, 2021.
Net sales
Net sales for the year ended December 31, 2021 increased by $266 million, or 3.5%, to $7.82 billion compared to the same period in 2020. Organic sales decreased $6 million which is primarily attributable to a net organic decrease of $4 million in the Freight Segment. Services sales increased from higher locomotive modernizations and overhauls and a decrease in locomotive parkings while Components sales increased due to a higher railcar build and lower railcar parkings. These increases were offset by lower Equipment sales due to lower locomotive sales, particularly in North America and Egypt, and lower Digital Electronics sales primarily due to chip shortages caused by supply chain disruptions. These decreases in Freight were
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offset by an increase in sales from acquisitions, which contributed $138 million, and favorable changes in foreign exchange rates increased sales by $134 million, primarily in the Transit segment.
Cost of sales
Cost of sales for the year ended December 31, 2021 increased by $34 million, or 0.6%, to $5.45 billion compared to the same period in 2020. The increase is primarily due to the increase in sales, increased metals, transportation and labor costs and higher restructuring costs. Cost of sales as a percentage of sales was 69.7% and 71.7% for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, representing a 2.0 percentage point decrease. The decrease as a percentage of sales is primarily due to favorable product mix, improved productivity, synergy savings and the structural cost actions taken in the prior year, partially offset by the increase in the costs described above. Cost of sales for the year ended December 31, 2021 included $53 million of restructuring costs, primarily for footprint rationalization and headcount actions in Europe. Cost of sales for the year ended December 31, 2020 included $45 million of restructuring costs, primarily for footprint rationalization and related headcount actions as part of the acquisition of GE Transportation and in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Operating expenses
Total operating expenses increased $101 million, or 7.3%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the same period in 2020. Operating expenses as a percentage of sales was 19.1% and 18.4% for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively. Selling, general and administrative expenses ("SG&A") increased $82 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the same period in 2020. The increase is primarily due to higher employee compensation and benefit costs, costs incurred to support the higher sales volume and incremental expense from the acquisition of Nordco, partially offset by a decrease in restructuring and transaction costs. Restructuring and transaction costs included in SG&A were $25 million and $71 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and were primarily for headcount actions and footprint rationalization programs. Engineering expense increased $14 million primarily due to investments in new technology and incremental expense from the acquisition of Nordco. Amortization expense increased $5 million, due to the acquisition of Nordco.
Interest expense, net
Interest expense, net, decreased $22 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 over the same period in 2020 attributable to lower overall average debt balances and lower interest rates.
Other income, net
Other income, net, was $38 million of income in 2021 compared to $11 million of income in the same period of 2020. The increase is primarily attributable to foreign exchange gains in the current year compared to losses in the prior year as well as higher equity income in the current year.
Income taxes
The effective income tax rate was 23.2% and 26.0% in 2021 and 2020, respectively. The change in effective tax rate in 2021 is primarily the result of filing amended federal and state income tax returns in 2021. The Company amended the 2019 federal tax return to incorporate changes in tax regulations which generated a net operating loss that was carried back to tax years 2014 to 2016, which were at a higher federal tax rate. See Note 11 of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report for additional information.
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Freight Segment
The following table shows our Consolidated Statements of Operations for our Freight Segment:
For the year ended December 31,
In millions20212020
Net sales:
Sales of goods$3,646 $3,790 
Sales of services1,593 1,292 
Total net sales5,239 5,082 
Cost of sales:
Cost of goods(2,682)(2,829)
Cost of services(890)(765)
Total cost of sales(3,572)(3,594)
Gross profit1,667 1,488 
Operating expenses(950)(904)
Income from operations ($)$717 $584 
Income from operations (%)13.7 %11.5 %
The following table shows the major components of the change in net sales for the Freight Segment in 2021 from 2020:
In millions
2020 Net Sales$5,082 
Acquisitions138 
Foreign Exchange23 
Changes in Sales by Product Line:
Equipment(229)
Components31 
Digital Electronics(33)
Services227 
2021 Net Sales$5,239 
Net sales
Freight Segment sales increased by $157 million, or 3.1%, to $5.24 billion, compared to the same period in 2020, however, net organic sales decreased $4 million. Services sales increased from higher locomotive modernizations and overhauls and a decrease in locomotive parkings while Components sales increased due to a higher railcar build and lower railcar parkings. These increases were offset by lower Equipment Sales due to lower locomotive sales, particularly in North America and Egypt, and lower Digital Electronics sales primarily due to chip shortages caused by supply chain disruptions that have caused order delays but have not resulted in order cancellations. The organic sales decrease was more than offset by sales from acquisitions of $138 million and the effects of favorable foreign exchange rates of $23 million.
Cost of sales
Freight Segment cost of sales decreased by $22 million, to $3.57 billion, compared to the same period in 2020. The decrease is primarily due to favorable product mix, productivity and synergies and lower restructuring costs partially offset by increased metals, transportation and labor costs. Cost of sales as a percentage of sales was 68.2% and 70.7% for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, representing a 2.5 percentage point decrease which also benefited from improved absorption of fixed costs. Cost of sales for the year ended December 31, 2021 includes $8 million of restructuring and transaction costs, primarily for amortization of the inventory step-up recorded in purchase accounting for the acquisition of Nordco and headcount actions as part of the ongoing integration of GE Transportation. Cost of sales for the year ended December 31, 2020 included $30 million of restructuring costs, primarily for costs for footprint rationalization and related headcount actions as part of the integration of GE Transportation and in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Operating expenses
Freight Segment operating expenses increased $46 million, or 5.1%, for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the same period in 2020. SG&A increased $31 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the same period in 2020. The increase is primarily due to higher employee compensation and benefit costs and incremental expense from the acquisition of Nordco, partially offset by a decrease in restructuring and transaction costs. Restructuring and transaction costs included in SG&A were $1 million and $46 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, and were primarily for headcount actions and footprint rationalization as part of the integration of GE Transportation. Engineering expense increased $10 million primarily due to investments in new technology and incremental expense from the acquisition of Nordco. Amortization expense increased $5 million due to the acquisition of Nordco.
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Transit Segment
The following table shows our Consolidated Statements of Operations for our Transit Segment:
For the year ended December 31,
In millions20212020
Net sales$2,583 $2,474 
Cost of sales(1,881)(1,825)
Gross profit702 649 
Operating expenses(464)(419)
Income from operations ($)$238 $230 
Income from operations (%)9.2 %9.3 %
The following table shows the major components of the change in net sales for the Transit Segment in 2021 from 2020:
In millions
2020 Net Sales$2,474 
Foreign Exchange111 
Changes in Sales by Product Line:
Original Equipment Manufacturing
Aftermarket(8)
2021 Net Sales$2,583 
Net sales
Transit Segment sales for the year ended December 31, 2021 increased by $109 million, or 4.4%, to $2.58 billion compared to the same period in 2020, with foreign exchange rates being the primary driver of the increase. Transit segment organic sales decreased $2 million due to supply chain issues and disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Cost of sales
Transit Segment cost of sales for the year ended December 31, 2021 increased by $56 million, or 3.1%, to $1.88 billion compared to the same period in 2020. The increase is primarily due to higher restructuring costs, increased metals, transportation and labor costs and the effect of foreign exchange rates. Cost of sales as a percentage of sales was 72.8% and 73.8% for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, respectively, representing a 1.0 percentage point decrease which also benefited from improved operational efficiency and the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic had on margins in 2020. Cost of sales for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 included $45 million and $14 million of restructuring costs, respectively, primarily for footprint rationalization in Europe.
Operating expenses
Transit Segment operating expenses increased $45 million, or 10.7%, in 2021 compared to the same period in 2020. SG&A increased $41 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the same period in 2020. The increase is primarily due to higher employee compensation and benefit costs and the effect of foreign exchange rates. Restructuring and transaction costs included within SG&A were $14 million for both years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 and were primarily for headcount actions and footprint rationalization in Europe. Engineering expense increased $4 million due to investments in new technology, and amortization expense remained consistent year over year.
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Liquidity and Capital Resources
Liquidity is provided by operating cash flow and borrowings under the Company’s Senior Notes and unsecured credit facility with a consortium of commercial banks. Additionally, the Company utilizes the revolving receivables program and supply chain financing program described below for added flexibility as part of our liquidity management strategy. The following is a summary of selected cash flow information and other relevant data:
For the year ended
December 31,
In millions20212020
Cash provided by (used for):  
Operating activities$1,073 $784 
Investing activities$(540)$(155)
Financing activities$(653)$(619)
 Operating activities. Cash provided by operations increased $289 million in 2021 to $1,073 million compared with $784 million in 2020. Significant changes to the sources and (uses) of cash for the twelve month periods include the following:
$280 million attributable to higher Net income and other favorable changes in the related statement of income;
$(235) million from net changes in working capital driven by: $(266) million from changes in receivables due to timing and volume of sales and $(125) million from the pay down of the Revolving Receivables Program; $(222) million unfavorable change in inventory primarily from inventory build-ups in response to supply chain challenges; $378 million improvement from accounts payable, primarily due to the timing of payments to suppliers and the COVID-19 related impacts on expenditures in 2020;
favorable change in accrued liabilities and customer deposits of $175 million, which related to approximately $120 million of cash payments made during 2020 for costs related to the GE Transportation acquisition, higher incentive compensation accruals and timing of severance accruals related to site rationalization; and,
approximately $40 million related to settlement of litigation in 2020 that did not recur in 2021.
Investing activities. In 2021 and 2020, cash used in investing activities was $(540) million and $(155) million, respectively. The major components of the cash outflow in 2021 was planned additions to property, plant, and equipment of $(130) million for continued investments in our facilities and manufacturing processes, and $(435) million in net cash paid for acquisitions, primarily for Nordco. The major components of the cash outflow in 2020 was $(136) million for additions to property, plant, and equipment and $(40) million in net cash paid for various small acquisitions.
Financing activities. In 2021, cash used for financing activities was $(653) million, which included net debt payments of $(161) million, $(99) million of contingent consideration payments related to the GE Transportation acquisition, $(92) million of dividend payments, and $(300) million for share repurchases. In 2020, cash used for financing activities was $(619) million, which included net debt payments of $(199) million, $(115) million of contingent consideration payments related to the GE Transportation acquisition, $(93) million of dividend payments, and $(207) million for share repurchases.
On June 3, 2021, Wabtec Transportation Netherlands B.V. ("Wabtec Netherlands") issued €500 million of 1.25% Senior Notes due in 2027, which are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by the Company. Also on June 3, 2021, the Company repaid all outstanding borrowings and interest related to the 364 Day Facility, effectively retiring the facility. Additional information with respect to Senior Notes, credit facilities and long-term debt is included in Note 8 of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report.
The Company borrows and repays against the Multi-Currency Revolving loan facility for added flexibility in liquidity to manage cash during the operating cycle. The proceeds from borrowing and the repayments are shown within the "Proceeds from debt, net of issuance costs" and "Payments of debt" lines, respectively, presented in the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
As of December 31, 2021, the Company held approximately $473 million of cash and cash equivalents. Of this amount, approximately $91 million was held within the United States and approximately $382 million was held outside of the United States, primarily in Europe, India, China, and Brazil. While repatriation of some cash held outside the United States may be restricted by local laws, most of the Company’s foreign cash could be repatriated to the United States.
Revolving Receivables Program
In May 2020, the Company entered into a revolving agreement to transfer up to $150 million of certain receivables of certain subsidiaries of the Company (the "Originators") through our bankruptcy-remote subsidiary to a financial institution on a
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recurring basis in exchange for cash equal to the gross receivables transferred. During the first quarter of 2021, the Company amended its revolving agreement to increase the amount of certain receivables that can be transferred from $150 million to $200 million. Additional information with respect to the Revolving Receivables Program is included in Note 2 of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements" included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report and incorporated by reference herein.
Supply Chain Financing Program
The Company has entered into supply chain financing arrangements with third-party financial institutions to provide our vendors with enhanced payment options while providing the Company with added working capital flexibility. The Company does not provide any guarantees under these arrangements, does not have an economic interest in our supplier's voluntary participation and does not receive an economic benefit from the financial institutions. The arrangements do not change the payable terms negotiated by the Company and our vendors and does not result in a change in the classification of amounts due as accounts payable in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Guarantor Summarized Financial Information
The obligations of Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corporation under the Senior Notes, Senior Credit Facility and 364 Day Facility have been fully and unconditionally guaranteed by certain of the parent company's U.S. subsidiaries. Each guarantor is 100% owned by the parent company, with the exception of GE Transportation, a Wabtec Company, which has 15,000 shares outstanding of Class A Non-Voting Preferred Stock held by General Electric Company.
The following tables present summarized financial information of the parent and the guarantor subsidiaries on a combined basis. The combined summarized financial information eliminates intercompany balances and transactions among the parent and guarantor subsidiaries and equity in earnings and investments in any guarantor subsidiaries or non-guarantor subsidiaries. The summarized financial information is provided in accordance with the reporting requirements of Rule 13-01 under SEC Regulation S-X for the issuer and guarantor subsidiaries.
Summarized Statement of Income
Unaudited
Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corp. and Guarantor Subsidiaries
In millionsYear Ended December 31, 2021
Net sales$3,750 
Gross profit820 
Net income attributable to Wabtec shareholders175 
Summarized Balance Sheets
Unaudited
Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corp. and Guarantor Subsidiaries
In millionsDecember 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Current assets$999 $1,092 
Noncurrent assets$2,087 $1,836 
Current liabilities$1,382 $1,409 
Long-term debt$3,483 $3,780 
Other non-current liabilities$552 $374 
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The following is a description of the transactions between the combined Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corp. and guarantor subsidiaries with non-guarantor subsidiaries.
Unaudited
Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corp. and Guarantor Subsidiaries
In millionsYear Ended December 31, 2021
Net sales to Non-Guarantor Subsidiaries$643 
Purchases from Non-Guarantor Subsidiaries1,151 
Unaudited
Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corp. and Guarantor Subsidiaries
In millionsDecember 31, 2021
Amount due from/(to) Non-Guarantor Subsidiaries$(6,428)
Summarized Financial Information—Euro Notes
The obligations under Wabtec Netherlands’ Euro Notes are fully and unconditionally guaranteed by Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corporation. Wabtec Netherlands is a wholly-owned, indirect subsidiary of the parent company. Wabtec Netherlands is a holding company and does not have any independent operations. Its assets consist of its investments in subsidiaries, which are separate and distinct legal entities that are not guarantors of the Euro Notes and have no obligations to pay amounts due under Wabtec Netherlands’ obligations.
The following tables present summarized financial information of Wabtec Netherlands, as the issuer of the Euro Notes, and Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corporation, as the parent guarantor, on a combined basis. The combined summarized financial information eliminates all intercompany balances and transactions among Wabtec Netherlands and Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corporation as well as all equity in earnings from and investments in any subsidiary of Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corporation, other than Wabtec Netherlands, which we refer to below as the Non-Issuer and Non-Guarantor Subsidiaries. The summarized financial information is provided in accordance with the reporting requirements of Rule 13-01 under SEC Regulation S-X for the issuer and parent guarantor.
Summarized Statement of Income
Unaudited
Issuer and Guarantor
In millionsTwelve Months Ended December 31, 2021
Net sales$540 
Gross profit97 
Net loss attributable to Wabtec shareholders(267)
Summarized Balance Sheets
Unaudited
Issuer and Guarantor
In millionsDecember 31, 2021December 31, 2020
Current assets$252 $408 
Noncurrent assets$805 $710 
Current liabilities$499 $824 
Long-term debt$4,044 $3,780 
Other non-current liabilities$209 $314 
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The following is a description of the transactions between the combined Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corp. and Wabtec Netherlands, with the subsidiaries of Westinghouse Air Brake Technologies Corp., other than Wabtec Netherlands, none of which are guarantors of the Euro Notes.
Unaudited
Issuer and Guarantor
In millionsTwelve Months Ended December 31, 2021
Net sales to non-issuer and non-guarantor subsidiaries$69 
Purchases from non-issuer and non-guarantor subsidiaries109 
Unaudited
Issuer and Guarantor
In millionsDecember 31, 2021
Amount due from/(to) non-issuer and non-guarantor subsidiaries$(6,262)
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Contractual Obligations and Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
The Company is obligated to make future payments under various contracts such as debt and lease agreements, and has certain contingent commitments. The Company has grouped these contractual obligations and off-balance sheet arrangements into operating activities, financing activities, and investing activities in the same manner as they are classified in the Statement of Consolidated Cash Flows to provide a better understanding of the nature of the obligations and arrangements and to provide a basis for comparison to historical information. The table below provides a summary of contractual obligations and off-balance sheet arrangements as of December 31, 2021:
In millionsTotal20222023-242025-262027+
Operating activities:     
Purchase obligations (1)
$117 $73 $40 $$— 
Operating leases (2)
345 609973113
Pension and postretirement benefit payments (3)
202 18 38 40 106 
Interest payments (4)
765 155 282 198 130 
Financing activities:     
Long-term debt4,081 1,012 1,250 1,817 
Dividends to shareholders (5)
111 111 — — — 
Contingent consideration (6)
256 110 146 — — 
Total$5,877 $529 $1,617 $1,565 $2,166 
 
(1)Purchase obligations represent non-cancelable contractual obligations at December 31, 2021.  In addition, the Company had approximately $1 billion of open purchase orders for which the related goods or services had not been received.  Although open purchase orders are considered enforceable and legally binding, their terms generally allow us the option to cancel, reschedule and adjust our requirements based on our business needs prior to the delivery of goods or performance of services.
(2)Operating leases represent multi-year obligations for rental of facilities and equipment.
(3)Pension and postretirement benefit payments includes expected payments to participants out of plan assets and corporate assets. The benefit payments are based on actuarial estimates using current assumptions for discount rates, expected return on long-term assets and rate of compensation increases. The Company expects to contribute $3 million to pension plan investments in 2022.
(4)Interest payments on the Senior Notes are based on interest rates in effect as of December 31, 2021 and are calculated on debt with maturities that extend to 2028. Interest payments for the Revolving Credit Facility and Other Borrowings are based on contractual terms and the Company’s current interest rates.
(5)Shareholder dividends are subject to approval by the Company’s Board of Directors, currently at an annual rate of approximately $111 million.
(6)Contingent consideration represents the total remaining payable to General Electric (GE) resulting from the 2019 acquisition of GE Transportation. The timing of the cash payments to GE is directly related to the future timing of tax benefits received by the Company and could change.
The above table does not reflect uncertain tax positions of $32 million, the timing of which are uncertain. Refer to Note 11 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” for additional information on uncertain tax positions. Additionally, the Company arranges for certain types of bank guarantees and letters of credit, such as performance bonds, bid bonds and financial guarantees, that are issued by certain banks and insurance companies to support customer contracts. At December 31, 2021, the total value of these bank guarantees and letters of credit were $791 million and expire on various dates through 2039. Amounts include interest payments based on contractual terms and the Company’s current interest rate.
Forward Looking Statements
We believe that all statements other than statements of historical facts included in this report, including certain statements under “Business” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” may constitute forward-looking statements. We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events. Although we believe that our assumptions made in connection with the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot assure that our assumptions and expectations are correct.
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These forward-looking statements are subject to various risks, uncertainties and assumptions about us, including, among other things:
Economic and industry conditions
prolonged unfavorable economic and industry conditions in the markets served by us, including North America, South America, Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa;
decline in demand for freight cars, locomotives, passenger transit cars, buses and related products and services;
reliance on major original equipment manufacturer customers;
original equipment manufacturers’ program delays;
demand for services in the freight and passenger rail industry;
demand for our products and services;
orders either being delayed, canceled, not returning to historical levels, or reduced or any combination of the foregoing;
consolidations in the rail industry;
continued outsourcing by our customers;
industry demand for faster and more efficient braking equipment;
fluctuations in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates;
availability of credit; or
changes in market consensus as to what attributes are required for projects to be considered "green" or "sustainable" or negative perceptions regarding determinations in such regard with respect to our Green Finance Framework;
Operating factors
supply disruptions;
technical difficulties;
changes in operating conditions and costs;
increases in raw material costs;
successful introduction of new products;
performance under material long-term contracts;
labor relations;
the outcome of our existing or any future legal proceedings, including litigation involving our principal customers and any litigation with respect to environmental matters, asbestos-related matters, pension liabilities, warranties, product liabilities, competition and anti-trust matters or intellectual property claims;
completion and integration of acquisitions; or
the development and use of new technology;
Competitive factors
the actions of competitors; or
the outcome of negotiations with partners, suppliers, customers or others;
Political/governmental factors
political stability in relevant areas of the world, including the impacts of war and conflicts;
future regulation/deregulation of our customers and/or the rail industry;
levels of governmental funding on transit projects, including for some of our customers;
political developments and laws and regulations, including those related to Positive Train Control;
federal and state income tax legislation; or
the outcome of negotiations with governments;
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COVID-19 factors
the severity and duration of the pandemic;
deterioration of general economic conditions;
shutdown of one or more of our operating facilities;
supply chain and sourcing disruptions;
ability of our customers to pay timely for goods and services delivered;
health of our employees;
ability to retain and recruit talented employees; or
difficulty in obtaining debt or equity financing.
Statements in this 10-K apply only as of the date on which such statements are made, and except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update any statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date on which the statement is made or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events.
Critical Accounting Estimates
The preparation of the financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles requires Management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions regarding uncertainties that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses. Areas of uncertainty that require judgments, estimates and assumptions include the accounting for allowance for doubtful accounts, inventories, business combinations, the testing of goodwill and other intangibles for impairment, warranty reserves, stock based compensation, income taxes, and revenue recognition. Management uses historical experience and all available information to make these judgments and estimates, and actual results will inevitably differ from those estimates and assumptions that are used to prepare the Company’s financial statements at any given time. Despite these inherent limitations, Management believes that Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) and the financial statements and related footnotes provide a meaningful and fair perspective of the Company.
A summary of the Company’s significant accounting policies is included in Note 2 in the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report. Management believes that the application of these policies on a consistent basis enables the Company to provide the users of the financial statements with useful and reliable information about the Company’s operating results and financial condition.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts:
Description The Company provides an allowance for doubtful accounts to cover anticipated losses on uncollectible accounts receivable.
Judgments and Uncertainties  The allowance for doubtful accounts receivable reflects our best estimate of expected losses inherent in our receivable portfolio determined on the basis of historical experience, relevant credit forecast information, changes to customer's solvency and other currently available evidence.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions  If our estimates regarding the collectability of troubled accounts, and/or our actual losses within our receivable portfolio exceed our estimated losses, we may be exposed to the expense of increasing our allowance for doubtful accounts and loss of cash flows.
Inventories:
Description Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value and are reviewed to ensure that an adequate provision is recognized for excess, slow moving and obsolete inventories, and net realizable value reserves.
Judgments and Uncertainties Cost is determined under the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. Inventory costs include material, labor and overhead. The Company compares inventory components to prior year sales history and current backlog and anticipated future requirements. To the extent that inventory parts exceed estimated usage and demand, a reserve is recognized to reduce the carrying value of inventory. Also, specific reserves are established for known inventory obsolescence, a decline in market value, or loss of a customer with specific inventory.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions If the market value or demand for our products were to decrease due to changing market conditions, the Company could be at risk of incurring write-downs to adjust inventory value to a net realizable value lower than stated cost. If our estimates regarding sales and backlog requirements are inaccurate, we may be exposed to the expense of increasing our reserves for slow moving and obsolete inventory.
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Business Combinations:
Description The Company accounts for business acquisitions in accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations, which requires the purchase price of the acquired business to be allocated to tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on the respective fair values. The amount of purchase price which is in excess of the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed is recognized as goodwill.
Judgments and Uncertainties Discounted cash flow models are used to estimate the fair values of acquired contract backlog, customer relationships, intellectual property intangibles and trade names, and below-market customer contract liabilities. The significant assumptions used to estimate the value of the intangible assets and below-market customer contract liabilities included revenue growth rates, projected profit margins, discount rates, royalty rates, customer attrition rates, revenue obsolescence rates and market participant profit margins. These significant assumptions are forward-looking and could be affected by future economic and market conditions.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions Different assumptions may result in materially different values for assets acquired and liabilities assumed, which may impact the Company's financial position and future results of operations.
Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangibles:
Description Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangibles are required to be tested for impairment at least annually. The Company performs its annual impairment test during the fourth quarter and more frequently when indicators of impairment are present. The Company reviews goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level. The Company has identified three reporting units for purposes of testing goodwill for impairment. Two reporting units exist within the Freight segment and the Transit segment is also a reporting unit. The evaluation of impairment involves comparing the current fair value of the business to the recorded value (including goodwill).
Judgments and Uncertainties A number of significant assumptions and estimates are involved in the application of the impairment test, including the identification of macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors, overall financial performance, Wabtec specific events and share price trends and making the assessment on whether each relevant factor will impact the impairment test positively or negatively and the magnitude of any such amount.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions Management considers historical experience and all available information at the time the fair values of its reporting units are estimated. However, actual amounts realized may differ from those used to evaluate the impairment of goodwill. If actual results are not consistent with our assumptions and judgments used in estimating future cash flows and asset fair values, we may be exposed to impairment losses that could be material to our results of operations. At December 31, 2021, all three of the Company’s reporting units had fair values which were substantially in excess of their carrying values. See Note 2 in the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report for additional discussion regarding impairment testing.
Warranty Reserves:
Description The Company provides warranty reserves to cover expected costs from repairing or replacing products with durability, quality or workmanship issues occurring during established warranty periods.
Judgments and Uncertainties In general, reserves are provided for as a percentage of sales, based on historical experience. In addition, specific reserves are established for known warranty issues and their estimable losses.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions If actual results are not consistent with the assumptions and judgments used to calculate our warranty liability, the Company may be exposed to the expense of increasing our reserves for warranty expense.
Stock-based Compensation:
Description The Company has issued incentive stock units to eligible employees that vest upon attainment of certain cumulative three-year performance goals. The program is structured as a rolling three-year plan; each year starts a new three-year performance cycle with the most recently completed cycle being 2019-2021. No incentive stock units will vest for performance below the three-year cumulative threshold.  The Company utilizes an economic profit measure for this performance goal.  Economic profit is a measure of the extent to which the Company produces financial results in excess of its cost of capital.  Based on the Company’s achievement of the threshold and three-year cumulative performance, the stock units vested can range from 0% to 200% of the shares granted.
Judgments and Uncertainties Significant judgments and estimates are used in determining the estimated three-year performance, which is then used to estimate the total shares expected to vest over the three year vesting cycle and corresponding expense based on the grant date fair value of the award.  When determining the estimated three-year performance, the Company utilizes a combination of historical actual results, budgeted results and forecasts. Upon the initial grant of a performance cycle, the Company estimates the three-year performance at 100%.  As actual performance results for a cycle begin to accumulate and the Company completes its budgeting and forecasting cycles the performance estimates are updated.  These judgments and estimates are reviewed and updated on a quarterly basis.
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Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions If assumptions used in determining the estimated three-year performance change significantly, stock-based compensation expense related to the unvested incentive stock awards can fluctuate from period to period.  
Income Taxes:
Description Wabtec records an estimated liability or benefit for income and other taxes based on what it determines will likely be paid in various tax jurisdictions in which it operates in accordance with ASC 740-10 Accounting for Income Taxes and Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes.
Judgments and Uncertainties The estimate of our tax obligations are uncertain because Management must use judgment to estimate the exposures associated with our various filing positions, as well as realization of our deferred tax assets. ASC 740-10 establishes a recognition and measurement threshold to determine the amount of tax benefit that should be recognized related to uncertain tax positions.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions Management uses its best judgment in the determination of these amounts. However, the liabilities ultimately realized and paid are dependent on various matters including the resolution of the tax audits in the various affected tax jurisdictions and may differ from the amounts recorded. An adjustment to the estimated liability would be recorded through income in the period in which new information changes the expected outcome of an uncertain tax position. A deferred tax valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
Revenue Recognition:
Description Revenue is recognized in accordance with ASC 606 Revenue from Contracts with Customers. Company recognizes a portion of its revenues on long-term customer agreements involving the design and production of highly engineered products that require revenue to be recognized over time because these products have no alternative use without significant economic loss and the agreements contain an enforceable right to payment including a reasonable profit margin from the customer in the event of contract termination. Generally, the Company uses an input method for determining the amount of revenue, cost and gross margin to recognize over time for these customer agreements. The input methods used for these agreements include costs of material and labor, both of which give an accurate representation of the progress made toward complete satisfaction of a particular performance obligation.
Judgments and Uncertainties Accounting for long-term customer agreements involves a judgmental process of estimating the total sales and costs for each contract, which results in the development of estimated profit margin percentages. Contract estimates related to long-term projects are based on various assumptions to project the outcome of future events that could span several years. These assumptions include cost of materials; labor availability and productivity; complexity of the work to be performed; and the performance of suppliers, customers and subcontracts that may be associated with the contract. Factors that influence these estimates include inflationary trends, technical and schedule risk, internal and subcontractor performance trends, business volume assumptions, asset utilization, and anticipated labor agreements. Generally, pricing is defined in our contracts but may include an estimate of variable consideration when required by the terms of the individual customer contract. Types of variable consideration that the Company typically has include volume discounts, prompt payment discounts, liquidating damages, and performance bonuses.
Effect if Actual Results Differ From Assumptions Should market conditions and customer demands dictate changes to our standard shipping terms, the Company may be impacted by longer than typical revenue recognition cycles. The development of expected contract costs and contract profit margin percentages involves procedures and personnel in all areas that provide financial or production information on the status of contracts. Due to the significance of judgments in the estimation process, it is likely that materially different revenue amounts could be recorded if we used different assumptions or if the underlying circumstances were to change. Changes in underlying assumptions/estimates, supplier performance, or circumstances may adversely or positively affect financial performance in future periods. Some of our contracts are expected to be completed in a loss position. Provisions are made currently for estimated losses on uncompleted contracts.
Item 7A.QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
All market risk sensitive instruments were entered into for non-trading purposes.
Interest Rate Risk
In the ordinary course of business, Wabtec is exposed to risks that increases in interest rates may adversely affect funding costs associated with its available variable-rate debt facilities. At December 31, 2021, the Company's interest risk related to variable-rate debt is limited to the amounts borrowed under the Multi-Currency Revolving credit facility. At
44


December 31, 2021, the Company had no outstanding variable rate debt. The Company’s variable rate debt represented 15% of total debt at December 31, 2020.
Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk
The Company is exposed to certain risks associated with changes in foreign currency exchange rates to the extent our operations are conducted in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. To reduce the impact of changes in currency exchange rates, the Company has periodically entered into foreign currency forward contracts. Refer to “Financial Derivatives and Hedging Activities” in Notes 2, 17 and 20 of “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report for more information regarding foreign currency exchange risk and sales by geographic area.
Item 8.FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
Financial statements and supplementary data are set forth in Item 15 of Part IV hereof.
Item 9.CHANGES IN AND DISAGREEMENTS WITH ACCOUNTANTS ON ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE
There have been no disagreements with our independent registered public accountants.
Item 9A.CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures
Wabtec’s principal executive officer and its principal financial officer have evaluated the effectiveness of Wabtec’s “disclosure controls and procedures,” (as defined in Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(e)) as of December 31, 2021. Based upon their evaluation, the principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that Wabtec’s disclosure controls and procedures are effective to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by Wabtec in the reports filed or submitted by it under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and to provide reasonable assurance that information required to be disclosed by Wabtec in such reports is accumulated and communicated to Wabtec’s Management, including its principal executive officer and principal finance officer, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.
Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting
There was no change in Wabtec’s “internal control over financial reporting” (as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act) that occurred during the quarter ended December 31, 2021, that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, Wabtec’s internal control over financial reporting. Management’s annual report on internal control over financial reporting and the attestation report of the registered public accounting firm are included in Part IV, Item 15 of this report.
Management’s Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting appears on page 51 and is incorporated by reference herein.
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
Ernst & Young LLP's attestation report on internal control over financial reporting appears on page 54 and is incorporated by reference herein.

Item 9B.OTHER INFORMATION
None.

Item 9C.DISCLOSURE REGARDING FOREIGN JURISDICTIONS THAT PREVENT INSPECTIONS
Not applicable.

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PART III
Items 10 through 14.
In accordance with the provisions of General Instruction G(3) to Form 10-K, the information required by Item 10 (Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance), Item 11 (Executive Compensation), Item 12 (Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters), Item 13 (Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence) and Item 14 (Principal Accounting Fees and Services) is incorporated herein by reference from the Company’s definitive Proxy Statement for its Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 18, 2022, except for the Equity Compensation Plan Information required by Item 12, which is set forth in the table below. The definitive Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after December 31, 2021. Information relating to the executive officers of the Company is set forth in Part I.
Wabtec has adopted a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics which is applicable to all of our employees, including our executive officers. This Code of Business Conduct and Ethics is posted on our website at www.wabteccorp.com. In the event that we make any amendments to or waivers from this code, we will disclose the amendment or waiver and the reasons for such on our website.
This table provides aggregate information as of December 31, 2021 concerning equity awards under Wabtec’s compensation plans and arrangements.
Plan Category(a)
Number of securities to
be issued upon exercise
of outstanding options, warrants and rights
(b)
Weighted-average
exercise price of
outstanding
options warrants and rights
(c)
Number of securities
remaining available for
future issuance
under equity compensation
plans (excluding securities reflected in column (a))
Equity compensation plans approved by shareholders1,267,169 $75.40 6,399,200 
Equity compensation plans not approved by shareholders— — — 
Total1,267,169 $75.40 6,399,200 

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PART IV
Item 15.EXHIBITS AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULES
The financial statements, financial statement schedules and exhibits listed below are filed as part of this annual report: 
  Page
(1)Financial Statements and Reports on Internal Control 
 
 
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (PCAOB ID: 42, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(2)Financial Statement Schedules 
 
  Filing
Method
 Exhibits 
2.113 
2.2
Amendment No. 1 to Shareholder's Agreement among Financiere Faiveley S.A., Famille Faiveley Participations, Francois Faiveley, Erwan Faiveley, and Wabtec Corporation dated as of dated as of October 24, 2016
14 
2.321 
2.4**21 
3.1
3.211 
3.3
3.422 
3.521 
4.112 
4.212 
4.312 
4.415 
4.515 
4.615 
4.716 
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4.817 
4.918 
4.1019 
4.1119 
4.1220 
4.13
4.14
4.1523 
4.1625 
4.17
4.18
4.1927 
4.2027 
4.2127 
10.1Agreement of Sale and Purchase of the North American Operations of the Railway Products Group, an operating division of American Standard Inc. (now known as Trane), dated as of 1990 between Rail Acquisition Corp. and American Standard Inc. (only provisions on indemnification are reproduced)
10.2Letter Agreement (undated) between the Company and American Standard Inc. (now known as Trane) on environmental costs and sharing
10.3Purchase Agreement dated as of June 17, 1992 among the Company, Schuller International, Inc., Manville Corporation and European Overseas Corporation (only provisions on indemnification are reproduced)
10.4
10.533 
10.6
10.710 
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.1110 
10.1210 
10.1310 
10.1410 
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10.1519 
10.1622 
10.1728 
10.1829 
10.1930 
10.2024 
10.2124 
10.2226 
10.2332 
10.2431 
10.2531 
21.0
22.0
23.1
31.1
31.2
32.1
101.INSXBRL Instance Document.
101.SCHXBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
101.CALXBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document
101.DEFXBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document.
101.LABXBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document